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Spend management class lectures_59572396-Lectures-on-DS

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Lectures on distributed systems: Introduction D ISTRIBUTED SYSTEMSAPPEARED relatively recently in the brief history of computer systems. Several factors contributed to this. Com puters got smaller and cheaper: we can fit more of them in a given space and we can afford to do so. Tens to thousands can fit in a box whereas in the past only one would fit in a good-sized room. Their price often ranges from less than ten to a few thousand dollars instead of several million doll ars. More importantly, computers are faster. Network communica tion takes computational effort. A slower compu ter would spend a greater fraction of its time working on communica ting rather than working on the user’s program. Couple this with past CPU perfo rman ce and cost and networking just wasn’t viable. Finally, interco nnect techn ologies have advanced to the point where it is very easy and inexpensi ve to connect computers together. Over local area networks, we can expect connectivity in the range of tens of Mbits/sec to a Gbit/sec. Tanenbaum defines a distributed system as a “collection of independent computersthat appear to the users of the system as a single computer.” There are two essential points in this definition. The first is the use of the word independent. This means that, architecturall y, the machines are capable of operating independently. The second point is that the software enables this set of connected machi nes to appear as a single computer to the users of the system. ...
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