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Psy 201 Week Three

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Week Three
DQ1 – Review the Information Processing Model tutorial located at the following link:
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/pcp/pcp_94178_psych_axia/livepsych/interface/index.htm?
atitle=Information-Processing%20Model%20of%20Memory&id1=23_1.
Explain the three stages of memory. How might understanding how our memory works help us learn?
The three stages of memory are a three part system in which information is sensed, rehearsed, encoded,
stored, and retrieved similar to the way a computer stores information. As the information passes through
each stage, it lasts longer. The first stage is the sensory store or sensory memories. Here information is
recorded by the sensory system and stored for only an instant. The next stage is short-term memory
where unrehearsed memory is lost within 30 seconds and rehearsed information will transfer into long-
term memory. Long-term memory is the final stage of memory and consists of information that is
permanently stored and coded to use later. Probably the biggest advantage of understanding memory is
allowing people to know what works best for them. By knowing that rehearsal helps information become a
part of long term memory, a person can store more a recall it easier later. For example, if a student just
reads from a book to study for a test, odds are the students won't do well. However, if that student knows
that rehearsal helps retain the information, the results could be much better.
DQ2 – Refer to p. 212 of Psychology and Your Life. Determine your memory style and explain how might
you apply this information at work and at school.
I've done these types of exercises and with each one, I'm still amazed to some degree how it keeps
changing. I don't know if that means I have all of the different styles and use a different one for each
situation, but it never stays the same. In this one, my memory style is visual and kinesthetic. In many
situations, I do prefer to watch something done or see it on paper and then do it myself. At this moment in
my life while I'm taking online classes, I think it will be somewhat harder to apply than it seems. I like
watching the instructor go over the material on the board. Because I can't see the instructor
review everything, I think I could use that and do it myself. It would not only help me review the material
and get hands on with it, but also see the information like I prefer. That way I'm using my two strongest
memory styles which can result in better recollection later on. At work, I could apply the visual style to
remember more during a conference or meeting while participating to guarantee that I will remember.
DQ3 – Review the Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment video located at the following link:
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/pcp/pcp_94178_psych_axia/video/index.html.
In the social cognitive approach to learning, observation learning occurs by watching the behavior of
others. Have you ever learned something just by observation alone? Share your example.
I agree with this experiment and use examples like this to parent my own child. There is no need for
aggression towards a developing mind and it does send the message that aggression is correlated with a
positive result. A immature mind may feed off of this and do it solely for attention. I take the approach to
actually explain bad behavior and reinforce it by talking with my daughter. Even though she is seven, she
does not need physical confrontation to understand my disapproval of her actions. She can see it through
my facial expressions and the tone or severity in my voice. Often times, she learns a positive from the
negative as I explain in detail what is expected of her. Children comprehend a lot more than what people
think even at such a young age.
I think a lot of learning or even most of it is done by observation. Starting as infants, is there a chemical in
the brain that tells a baby when to start crawling, pulling-up, walking, and talking? These are behaviors

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learned through observation. A child witnesses a parent walking upright therefor they incorporate the
steps, gain muscle control and tone, and start expressing what they are witnessing. Take for example a
deaf mother. Often times she will teach her children sign language in order to interact with them. This is
a way to communicate from one another but if a child has never been exposed to the human language or
sounds of it, how are they going to speak it or understand it, leaving them no way to relate to it.
DQ4 – Refer to Figure 4 on p. 178 of Psychology and Your Life. What is the difference between classical
and operant conditioning? Provide an example of each type of conditioning. Do not use the same
example as the text.
In classical conditioning, an association is made between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned
response. Ivan Pavlov performed a famous experiment that demonstrated this type of learning. Pavlov
was studying the physiology of digestion in dogs when he noticed that his dogs would begin go salivate
not only when they were given food, but also when the lab tech that normally fed them was present. His
experiment involved ringing a bell at feeding time. After repeating this a few times, the dogs would
salivate just from the sound of the bell, even if no food or lab tech was there. This type of learning is
innate. The dogs did not make a choice to salivate at the sound of the bell, it just became a part of their
natural behavior.Operant conditioning involves reward and/or punishment to increase or decrease the
frequency of a certain behavior. In other words, a person would learn to stop doing something that
repeatedly got him in trouble. On the other hand, if one gets rewarded every time he does something, he
is likely to do that thing more often. For example, my son got into the habit of spitting (A couple of my
friends use chewing tobacco). After I noticed this, I would put him on a "time-out" every time I saw him
spit. It did not take him very long to make the choice not to spit anymore. This type of learning involves
making a choice to behave a certain way because of the consequences of that behavior.
DQ5 - Watch the Learning with Change and Experience and Memory – Interactive Tutorial located at the
following link: http://media.pearsoncmg.com/pcp/pcp_94123_psych_axia/lesson_04/select.htm
o Explain classical conditioning. Provide an example from your childhood that demonstrates
this learning condition. After reading the section on operant conditioning, explain punishment vs.
positive reinforcement

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