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Gluconeogenesis: It is the metabolic process by which organisms produce sugars (namely glucose) for catabolic reactions from non-carbohydrate precursors. Gluconeogenic substrates: Glycerol Lactate and Pyruvate Glucogenic amino acids • Both mitochondria and Cytosol are involved • Exception: if the substrate is Glycerol: only cytosol Fate of Pyruvic acid At the end of glycolysis 01 mole of glucose is converted into 02 moles of pyruvic acid and yielded 8 ATP molecules under aerobic condition. Glycolysis is going on in cytosol of the cell and all reactions after 4th step occurred in duplicate (see glycolysis pathway). Now let’s see following possibilities of reactions after pyruvic acid formation. 1. Lactic acid formation Under hypoxic condition, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid via LDH enzyme. Pyruvate Carboxylation Pyruvate Carboxylase Biotin Pyruvate CO2 ATP ADP + Pi Hormones contributing gluconeogenesis are: • Glucagon • Nor epinephrine • Cortisol • Thyroid hormone • Growth hormone Insulin inhibit gluconeogenesis Oxaloacetate 3. Link between carbohydrate and fat metabolism: During glycolysis dihydroxyacetone phosphate is formed. However, if carbohydrates are already in excess, this effect produces fat from dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This is a link between carbohydrate and fat metabolism. 5. Link between carbohydrate and protein metabolism: In mitochondria once pyruvic acid entered it may be converted into alanine (amino acid) ...
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