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78380862 anatomy final exam study guide

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Anatomy Final Exam Study Guide
Intro to Anatomy
1. Levels of organization of the human body
-Atom > cell > tissue > organ > organ system > organism
2. Organ systems (11)
1) Skeletal bone, cartilage
2) Muscular movement, contraction, support, heat
3) Cardiovascular blood, arteries, veins
4) Reproductive sexual organs
5) Endocrine pituitary, thyroid, hormones
6) Nervous fast response to stimulus
7) Respiratory lungs, trachea, supplies oxygen
8) Urinary removes nitrogen
9) Lymphatic immune helps clean blood
10) Digestive stomach, intestine, breaks down food
11) Integumentary skin, protection, waterproof
3. What does the muscular system do, structures associated with the skin, etc.
-Provides movement, contraction, support and heat
4. Homeostasis ability to maintain constant internal conditions
5. Positive vs. negative feedback mechanisms
-Negative shuts off original stimulus
-Positive increase original stimulus, push further away from normal
6. Anatomical position
-Body erect with parallel, arms hanging on sides and palms facing out
7. Directional terms
Superior- toward the upper part
Inferior- toward the lower part
Anterior- toward the front
Posterior- toward the back
Medial- toward midline
Lateral- away toward the midline
Intermediate- between a more medial and lateral structure
Proximal- closer to origin of the body
Distal- farther from the body surface
Superficial- toward body surface
Deep- away from body surface
Dorsal- near the back
Ventral- near the stomach

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