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Abodmen part 2 notes

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General Anatomy Reviewer
Chapter 5-The Abdomen Part II-The
Abdominal Cavity
Peritoneum
-is a thin serous membrane that lines the
walls of abdominal and pelvic cavities and
clothes of the viscera
-can be regarded as balloon against which
organs are pressed outside.
PARIETAL PERITONEUM
-Lines the walls of the abdominal and pelvic
cavities
VISCERAL PERITONEUM
-Covers the organs
PERITONEAL CAVITY
-Potential space between the parietal and
visceral layers which is in effect the inside
space of the balloon
-No organ
MALE- closed cavity
FEMALE- communication with the exterior
through the:
-uterine tubes
-uterus
-vagina
EXTRAPERITONEAL TISSUE
-Found between the parietal peritoneum and
the fascial lining of the abdominal and
pelvic walls
- in the area of the kidney; this tissue
contains a lot of fat, which supports the
kidneys.
PERITONEAL CAVITY
-Largest cavity in the body
DIVIDED INTO 2 PARTS:
1) Greater Sac- The main compartment
and extends from the diaphragm
down into the pelvis.
2) Lesser Sac- smaller and lies behind
the stomach
Lesser and greater sac- are in free
communication with one another through an
oval window called epiploic foramen /
opening of the lesser sac
PERITONEAL FLUID
-Lubricates the surface of the peritoneum
and allows free movement between the
viscera.
INTRAPERITONEAL AND
RETROPERITONEAL RELATIONSHIPS
-are used to describe various organs to their
peritoneal covering.
*INTRAPERITONEAL- almost totally
covered with visceral peritoneum
-Appears to be surrounded by the peritoneal
cavity but covered by visceral peritoneum
and attached to other organs by omenta.
Examples:
-stomach
-jejunum
-ileum
-spleen
* RETROPERITONEAL

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-lie behind the peritoneum and are only
partially covered with visceral peritoneum
Examples :
-pancreas
-ascending and descending colon
Peritoneal Ligaments
-Two layered folds of peritoneum that
connect solid viscera to the abdominal walls
Examples:
-falciform ligament
-Coronary ligament
-Right and left triangular ligaments
OMENTA
-are 2-layered fold of peritoneum that
connect the stomach to another viscus
Greater omentum- connects the great
curvature of the stomach to the transverse
colon
-hangs down like an apron in fornt of the
coils of the small intestine and is folded
back on itself to be attached to the transverse
colon.
Lesser omentum- suspends the lesser
curvature of the stomach from the fissure of
the ligamentum venosum and portal hepatis
on the undersurface of the liver
Gastrosplenic Omentum connects the
stomach to the hilum of the spleen
MESENTRIES
-are two layered fold of peritoneum
connecting parts of the intestine to the
posterior abdominal wall
Examples :
-mesentry of the small intestine
-transverse mesocolon
-sigmoid mesocolon
Permits blood, lymph vessels and nerves
to reach the viscera
-OMENTA
-PERITONEAL LIGAMENTS
-MESENTRIES
Peritoneal Pouches, Recesses, Spaces and
Gutters
Lesser Sac- lies behind the stomach and the
lesser omentum
-Extends upward as far as the diaphragm and
downward between the layers of the greater
omentum
Left margin of the sac form by the:
-spleen
-gastrosplenic omentum
-splenicorenal ligament
Opening of the lesser sac or epiploic
foramen- Right margin opens into the
greater sac (main part of the peritoneal)
ANTERIORLY:
-Free border of the lesser omentum
-bile duct
-hepatic artery
-portal vein
POSTERIORLY:
-Inferior vena cava
-caudate process of the caudate lobe of the
liver
INFERIORLY
-First part of the duodenum

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General Anatomy Reviewer Chapter 5-The Abdomen Part II-The Abdominal Cavity Peritoneum -is a thin serous membrane that lines the walls of abdominal and pelvic cavities and clothes of the viscera -can be regarded as balloon against which organs are pressed outside. PERITONEAL CAVITY -Largest cavity in the body DIVIDED INTO 2 PARTS: 1) Greater Sac- The main compartment and extends from the diaphragm down into the pelvis. 2) Lesser Sac- smaller and lies behind the stomach PARIETAL PERITONEUM -Lines the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities Lesser and greater sac- are in free communication with one another through an oval window called epiploic foramen / opening of the lesser sac VISCERAL PERITONEUM -Covers the organs PERITONEAL CAVITY -Potential space between the parietal and visceral layers which is in effect the inside space of the balloon -No organ MALE- closed cavity FEMALE- communication with the exterior through the: -uterine tubes -uterus -vagina EXTRAPERITONEAL TISSUE -Found between the parietal peritoneum and the fascial lining of the abdominal and pelvic walls PERITONEAL FLUID -Lubricates the surface of the peritoneum and allows free movement between the viscera. INTRAPERITONEAL AND RETROPERITONEAL RELATIONSHIPS -are used to describe various organs to their peritoneal covering. *INTRAPERITONEAL- almost totally covered with visceral peritoneum -Appears to be surrounded by the peritoneal cavity but covered by visceral peritoneum and attached to other organs by ...
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