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250946968 heart

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Mediastinum: location of the heart; encloses the heart
base:
superior, flat, wide end
directed toward the right shoulder
apex:
inferior, pointed end towards the left hip (L. Ventricle)
rests on diaphragm
point of maximal intensity (PMI); where the heart comes in contact with chest
wall (between 5th and 6th ribs)
sternal costal:
mostly between R. ventricle and R. atria
the hear is the in the center of the chest, but 2/3 of the hearts bulk is on the left
side of the midsternal line (beats to the left)
left border: formed by L. ventricle, partly L. atrium
superior border: great vessels enter and leave the atria (superior vena cava & aorta)
pericardium: double-walled sac that encloses the heart (fibrous and serous membranes)
fibrous pericardium: attaches to the thoracic wall; superficial part of this ^ sac
tough, dense connective tissue layer
protects the heart
anchors it to surrounding structures
prevents overfilling of the heart with blood
serous pericardium:
think, slippery, two-layer serous membrane
deep to the fibrous pericardium
composed of both parietal layer and visceral layer
parietal layer:
lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
at the base (superior) margin of the heart, it attaches to the large arteries exiting
the heart, and then turn inferiorly and continues over the external heart surface as
visceral layer (epicardium)
visceral layer:
thin, transparent serous tissue forming the outer layer (covering) of the heart wall
pericardial cavity:

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between the parietal and visceral layers
slitlike; contains a film of serous fluid (pericardial fluid)
serious fluid (pericardial fluid) allows serous membrane to glide smoothly past
one another during heart activity; allows heart to work in friction-free
environment
Epicardium/visceral pericardium (serous membrane):
lines the outside of the myocardium
often infiltrated with fat, especially in older people.
Myocardium:
composed mainly of cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart
it is the layer that contracts
involuntary, striated
the branching cardiac muscle cells are tethered (tied) to one another by
crisscrossing connective tissue fibers and arranged in spiral or circular bundles
interlacing bundles effectively link all parts of the heart together
CT fibers from a dense network, the fibrous skeleton of the heart: reinforces the
myocardium internally and anchors that cardiac muscle fibers.
fibrous skeleton of the heart: composed of collagen and elastic fibers
Endocardium:
thin layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of CT
located on the inner myocardial surface
lines the heart chambers and covers the fibrous skeleton of the valves
continuous with the endothelial linings of the blood vessels leaving and entering
the heart
interatrial septum: separates the atria
interventricular septum: separates the ventricles
Atria: The receiving chambers
receiving chambers of circulating blood; upper chambers of the heart that receive
blood, from the body into the right atrium, or from the lungs into the left atrium
Auricles: appendages of the atrium; increase atrial volume
pectinate muscles: muscle bundles on the anterior portion of the right atrium
crista terminalis: C-shaped ridge that separates posterior and anterior regions of
the right atrium
left atrium is mostly smooth and pectinate muscles are found only in the auricle
fossa ovalis: marks the spot where (foramen ovale) existed in the fetal heart;
seen as an indentation on the interatrial septum (wall that separates the atria)
Blood enters the Right Atrium via three veins: superior, inferior vena cava and coronary
sinus (receives deoxygenated blood)

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Mediastinum: location of the heart; encloses the heart base: • superior, flat, wide end • directed toward the right shoulder apex: • inferior, pointed end towards the left hip (L. Ventricle) • rests on diaphragm • point of maximal intensity (PMI); where the heart comes in contact with chest wall (between 5th and 6th ribs) sternal costal: • mostly between R. ventricle and R. atria • the hear is the in the center of the chest, but 2/3 of the hearts bulk is on the left side of the midsternal line (beats to the left) left border: formed by L. ventricle, partly L. atrium superior border: great vessels enter and leave the atria (superior vena cava & aorta) pericardium: double-walled sac that encloses the heart (fibrous and serous membranes) fibrous pericardium: attaches to the thoracic wall; superficial part of this ^ sac • tough, dense connective tissue layer • protects the heart • anchors it to surrounding structures • prevents overfilling of the heart with blood serous pericardium: • think, slippery, two-layer serous membrane • deep to the fibrous pericardium • composed of both parietal layer and visceral layer parietal layer: • lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium • at the base (superior) margin of the heart, it attaches to the large arteries exiting the heart, and then turn inferiorly and continues over the external heart surface as visceral layer (epicardium) visceral layer: • thin, transparent serous tissue forming the outer ...
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I was struggling with this subject, and this helped me a ton!

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