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Structural bioinformatics - bioinformatics

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University of Central Punjab
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1 STRUCTURAL BIOINFORMATICS 2 • Protein Structure Basics CONTENTS Amino acid Peptide formation • Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary • Determination of Protein Three-Dimensional Structure • Protein Structural Visualization • Protein Structure Comparison • Protein Structure Classification 3 AMINO ACIDS The building blocks of proteins are twenty naturally occurring amino acids • A free amino group( NH2) and a free carboxyl group (COOH). • These groups are linked to a central carbon (Cα). • Amino acids can be differentiated by the side chain R group. 4 CLASSIFICATION Amino acids can be grouped into several categories based on the chemical and physical properties of the side chains. The side chain groups can be categories as • Small • Large • Polar • Non-polar • Hydrophobic • Hydrophilic 5 PEPTIDE FORMATION • The peptide formation involves two amino acids covalently joined together between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. A polypeptide, also called a protein, has a well-defined three-dimensional arrangement. 6 PRIMARY STRUCTURE • It is the simplest level of protein structure. • Primary structure is simply the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. • The sequence of a protein is determined by the DNA of the gene that encodes the protein. • A change in the gene's DNA sequence may lead to a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein. 7 SECOND ...
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