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Wine Fermentation - Biotechnology

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Wine: An alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Types; •Red Wine •White Wine •Sparkling Wine •Sweet Wine •Rose Wine Vinification: The production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid. Process: There are five basic stages to the wine making process •Harvesting •Crushing and Pressing •Primary and Secondary fermentation •Filtration •Bottling Harvesting: Harvesting is the picking of the grapes and it’s the first step in wine production. •The process of making fine wine requires that the grapes are harvested at a precise time, when physiologically ripped. •The quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor Crushing and Pressing: The process of gently squeezing and applying pressure to the grapes for liberating their contents and separating juice from them. •For red wines stems of the grapes are removed. •White wines are mostly processed without crushing. •Pressed juice tends to be lower in acidity with a higher pH. Fermentation: Alcoholic fermentation can be done with the natural yeast present on grapes. Primary fermentation: Yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects; •Taste of the end product •Speed of the fermentation Secondary fermentation: Wine is kept under an airlock to protect the wine from oxidat ...
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