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478536713 human respiration handout docx

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HUMAN RESPIRATION
The human respiratory system allows one to obtain oxygen, eliminate carbon
dioxide.
Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration
Inspiration- the process of taking in air
Expiration- the process of blowing out air
Inhalation
When the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, the volume of the thoracic
cavity increases, causing the pressure in the lungs to decrease
Inhalation is also called inspiration
Exhalation
Exhalation = Expiration
When the same muscles relax, volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, pressure in
the lungs increase
Upper Respiratory
Lower Respiratory
1. Nose/Nasal Cavity
1. Larynx
2. Sinus
2. Epiglottis
3. Pharynx
3. Trachea
4. Bronchi
5. Bronchioles
6. Alveoli
7. Lungs
Nasal Cavity
Functions:
1. filters the air
2. warms the air
3. moisten the air entering the lungs
4. smell (which also plays a role in the sense of taste)
Parts of the Nasal Cavity
Mucus membranes - secrete sticky mucus to trap germs & debris.
Contains olfactory receptor cells for the sense of smell
Sinuses air filled cavities, warm and moisten air

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Pharynx
Functions - is a passageway for air, liquids, and food. (swallowing begins here).
Connects the nasal cavity to the esophagus and the larynx
Tonsils are found here lymphatic tissue that protects against infection
Pharynx Sections
1. NASOPHARYNX- upper portion of the pharynx, which extend from the base of the
skull to the upper surface of the soft palate.
2. OROPHARYNX- lies behind the oral cavity, extending from the uvula to the level of
the hyoid bone.
3. LARYNGOPHARYNX- this is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus.
Larynx
Functions:
1. Connects the pharynx to the trachea
2. Contains vocal cords used to generate sound
3. Prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract
4. Structure made from cartilage
Epiglottis
Epiglottis closes the trachea when swallowing
Trachea
Windpipe held open by concentric rings of cartilage
Function Connects the larynx to the bronchi.
Lungs
Two lobed, elastic structures within the thoracic (chest) cavity containing surfaces
for gas exchange.
Function: Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and air.

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HUMAN RESPIRATION • The human respiratory system allows one to obtain oxygen, eliminate carbon dioxide. • Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration – Inspiration- the process of taking in air – Expiration- the process of blowing out air Inhalation • When the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, causing the pressure in the lungs to decrease • Inhalation is also called inspiration Exhalation • Exhalation = Expiration • When the same muscles relax, volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, pressure in the lungs increase Upper Respiratory 1. Nose/Nasal Cavity 2. Sinus 3. Pharynx 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lower Respiratory Larynx Epiglottis Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Lungs Nasal Cavity Functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. filters the air warms the air moisten the air entering the lungs smell (which also plays a role in the sense of taste) Parts of the Nasal Cavity – Mucus membranes - secrete sticky mucus to trap germs & debris. – Contains olfactory receptor cells for the sense of smell – Sinuses – air filled cavities, warm and moisten air Pharynx • Functions - is a passageway ...
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