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Lecture gp111 02

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GP111 Elementary Thermodynamics Basic thermodynamics Introduction & fundamental concepts 1 Introduction & fundamental concepts • System, surrounding and universe • Types of systems – Close system – Open system – Isolated system • Boundary • Properties of a system – Intensive properties – Extensive properties • State • Process • Process path • Quasi-static and non-quasi static process • Reversible & irreversible process • Thermodynamic equilibrium 2 Particle hypothesis • Everything made up of particles. • Axiom: Everything is made-up of indivisible units called particles that are never still. • Matter in the Universe is made of particles that we call atoms. • Each of these atoms are made up of more fundamental particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons 3 Thermodynamic system A thermodynamic system is defined as that part of the universe that is under consideration. A real or imaginary boundary separates the system from the rest of the universe, which is referred to as the environment or surroundings (sometimes called a reservoir.) A system can be anything, for example a piston, a solution in a test tube, a living organism, or a planet, etc. 4 Surrounding, universe, system boundary • Surrounding: The surrounding is defined to be everything else other than the system of interest. • Universe: The universe is defined to be the system and the surroundings. That is everything there is in existence. • System Boundary: T ...
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