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Lecture gp111 10

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GP111 Elementary Thermodynamics Gas , vapour Power and refrigeration cycles 1 Introduction • Both power generation and refrigeration are usually accomplished by systems that operate on a thermodynamic cycle: power cycles and refrigeration cycles. • Power producing devises: engines • Refrigeration producing devices: refrigerators, air-conditioners and heat pumps. 2 Basic considerations in the analysis of power cycles • Cycles encountered in actual devices are difficult to analyze because of the presence of complicating effects such as friction etc. • Consider a cycle that resembles the actual cycle closely but it made up totally of internally reversible process (ideal cycle) Wnet Thermal efficiency ,  th = Qin or wnet qin 3 Idealizations and simplifications • Cycle does not involve any friction: no pressure drop in the working fluid. • Expansion and compression process: quasi equilibrium. • Pipes connecting various components are well insulated. • Neglecting changers in KE and PE 4 Net work of the cycle 5 Carnot cycle • The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle that can be executed between heat a source and a heat sink.  th,Carnot TL = 1− TH 6 Air-standard assumption • Gas power cycles (working fluid gas): spark ignition engines, diesel engines, conventional gas turbines, etc. • All these engines energy is provided by burning a fuel within the system boundary. • Working fluid (air) mainly contains nitrogen and hardl ...
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