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Charles II of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 6 February 1685)[c] was King of Scotland from 1649 until 1651, and
King of Scotland, England and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death
in 1685.
Charles II
Charles is of thin build and has chest-length curly black hair
Charles in Garter robes by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 16601665
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
Reign
29 May 1660[a]
6 February 1685
Coronation
23 April 1661
Predecessor
Charles I
Successor
James II & VII
King of Scotland
Reign
30 January 1649
3 September 1651[b]
Coronation
1 January 1651
Predecessor
Charles I
Successor
Military government
Born
29 May 1630
(N.S.: 8 June 1630)
St James's Palace, London, England
Died
6 February 1685 (aged 54)
(N.S.: 16 February 1685)
Whitehall Palace, London, England
Burial
14 February 1685
Westminster Abbey, London, England
Spouse
Catherine of Braganza
(m. 1662)
Illegitimate children

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James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
Charlotte FitzRoy, Countess of Yarmouth
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth
Catherine FitzCharles
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton
Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans
Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
Lady Mary Tudor
House
Stuart
Father
Charles I of England
Mother
Henrietta Maria of France
Signature
Charles II's signature
Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and
Henrietta Maria of France. After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the
climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5
February 1649. But England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the
English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell.
Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled
to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles
spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands.
The political crisis that followed Cromwell's death in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the
monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he
was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year
did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649.
Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up
the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon
Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of
his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover,
an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-
Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at
an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and
Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament
forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked
the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir presumptive, James,
Duke of York, was Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-

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Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was King of Scotland from 1649 until 1651, and King of Scotland, England and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. Charles II Charles is of thin build and has chest-length curly black hair Charles in Garter robes by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665 King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...) Reign 29 May 1660[a] – 6 February 1685 Coronation 23 April 1661 Predecessor Charles I Successor James II & VII King of Scotland Reign 30 January 1649 – 3 September 1651[b] Coronation 1 January 1651 Predecessor Charles I Successor Military government Born 29 May 1630 (N.S.: 8 June 1630) St James's Palace, London, England Died 6 February 1685 (aged 54) (N.S.: 16 February 1685) Whitehall Palace, London, England Burial 14 February 1685 Westminster Abbey, London, England Spouse C ...
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