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Biology question answer

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BIOLOGY QUESTION & ANSWER 1. a) i) Define the term genetics  the study of heredity(inheritance) and variation or study of mechanisms by which characteristics are passed from parents to offspring iii) List some characteristics which are inherited  size  height/length  colour/type  shape  yield iii) State the importance of genetics  helps to explain differences between organisms of the same species  helps to explain the transmission of characters from generation to generation  improvement in livestock  improvement in crops  can be used to treat some difficult diseases b) i) Explain the meaning of the following terms Heredity  the resemblance among individuals related by descent  transmission of traits from parents to offspring Trait  also called character  A character of the organism e.g. type of ear, colour of eyes, height, yield etc. Gene  unit of inheritance  it is the heredity factor which transmits traits from parents to offspring  genes are located at fixed points on chromosomes  each point is called a locus (loci) Allele  genes can exist in a series of alternative forms at a particular locus  allele refers to alternative forms of genes controlling a particular characteristic Chromosomes  threadlike structures found in nuclei of all plants and animals  they carry genes which are hereditary materials  they consist of substances called DNA and proteins called histosones DNA  deoxyribonucleic acid  ...
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