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Week 2 individual assignment 1

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Comparing Average Annual Percent of Diabetic Medicare Enrollees Age 65-75 having
Blood Lipids between Blacks and White Populations.
1. Introduction
Members of ethnic or racial groups in the United States (U.S.), including African Americans
(Blacks), suffer disproportionally from a wide range of chronic diseases, including types I and

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II diabetes. General statistics suggest that Black adults aged above 65 are 60% to 100% more
likely to suffer from diabetes or experience diabetes-related morbidities than their White
counterparts (Samsom et al., 2016; Shi et al., 2014; Kirkman et al., 2012). The contributing
factors for this racial disparity in diabetes prevalence among Black and White populations are
still unclear, but genetics, behavioral, physiological, environmental, and socioeconomic
contributors have been mentioned in the literature. Because of the high prevalence of diabetes
among the Black population, previous studies suggest that the Blacks are more susceptible to
the disease compared to Whites, and some of the contributing factors include unfavorable gene-
environment interactions, genetic propensity, and concentration of blood lipids (Signorello et al.,
2007; Rivera, Lebenbaum, & Rosella, 2015). Although these studies have succeeded in utilizing
nationally representative frames to quantitatively analyze whether diabetes disparity between
Blacks and Whites can be attributed to factors above other than race, much of the efforts are
directed to underlying preseasons for disparity rather than quantitatively evaluating the extent
of diabetes disparity. Using the available information from the Medicare National Data by
County (UMGC, 2019), which includes relatively large Blacks and Whites from generally
similar socioeconomic backgrounds (counties), this report has a unique opportunity to
quantitatively evaluate the disparity in the average annual percent of diabetic Medicare
enrollees age 65-75 having blood lipids between Black and White Populations.
2. Research Questions and Hypothesis
2.1 Research Question
The following research question guided this report;

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Comparing Average Annual Percent of Diabetic Medicare Enrollees Age 65-75 having Blood Lipids between Blacks and White Populations. 1. Introduction Members of ethnic or racial groups in the United States (U.S.), including African Americans (Blacks), suffer disproportionally from a wide range of chronic diseases, including types I and II diabetes. General statistics suggest that Black adults aged above 65 are 60% to 100% more likely to suffer from diabetes or experience diabetes-related morbidities than their White counterparts (Samsom et al., 2016; Shi et al., 2014; Kirkman et al., 2012). The contributing factors for this racial disparity in diabetes prevalence among Black and White populations are still unclear, but genetics, behavioral, physiological, environmental, and socioeconomic contributors have been mentioned in the literature. Because of the high prevalence of diabetes among the Black population, previous studies suggest that the Blacks are more susceptible to the disease compared to Whites, and some of the contributing factors include unfavorable gene environment interactions, genetic propensity, and concentration of blood lipids (Signorello et al., 2007; Rivera, Lebenbaum, & Rosella, 2015). Although these studies have succeeded in utilizing nationally representative frames to quantitatively analyze whether diabetes disparity between Blacks and Whites can be attributed to factors above other than race, much of the efforts are directed to underlying preseasons ...
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