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Primary batteries

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PRIMARY BATTERIES
An alkaline battery is a type of primary battery which derives its energy from the reaction
between zinc metal and manganese dioxide. Compared with zinc-carbon batteries or zinc chloride types,
alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and longer shelf life, yet provide the same voltage. The
alkaline battery gets its name because it has an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide instead of
the acidic ammonium chloride or zinc chloride electrolyte of the zinc-carbon batteries. Other battery
systems also use alkaline electrolytes, but they use different active materials for the electrodes. Alkaline
batteries are used in many household items such as MP3 players, CD players, digital cameras, toys, lights
and radios.
A mercury battery (mercuric oxide battery, mercury cell or button cell) is a non-rechargeable
electrochemical battery, a primary cell. Mercury batteries use a reaction between mercuric oxide and
zinc electrodes in an alkaline electrolyte. The voltage during discharge remains practically constant at
1.35 volts, and the capacity is much greater than that of a similarly sized zinc carbon battery. Mercury
batteries were used in the shape of button cells for watches, hearing aids, cameras and calculators, and
in larger forms for other applications. For a time during and after World War II, batteries made with
mercury became a popular power source for portable electronic devices.

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SECONDARY BATTERIES
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of a rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries
are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for
military and aerospace applications. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as the
material at the positive electrode and typically graphite at the negative electrode. The batteries have a
high energy density, no memory effect and low self-discharge. They can however be a safety hazard
since they contain a flammable electrolyte, and if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions
and fires.
The nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad Battery) is a type pf rechargeable battery
using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. A NiCd battery has a terminal voltage
during discharge of around 1.2 volts which decreases little until nearly the end of discharge. NiCd
batteries are made in a wide range of sizes and capacities, from portable sealed types interchangeable
with carbon-zinc dry cells, to large ventilated cells used for standby power and motive power. However,
the materials are more costly than that of the lead-acid battery, and the cells have high self-discharge
rates. Most commonly used in portable power tools, photography equipment, flashlights, emergency
lighting and portable electronic devices.

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PRIMARY BATTERIES An alkaline battery is a type of primary battery which derives its energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganese dioxide. Compared with zinc-carbon batteries or zinc chloride types, alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and longer shelf life, yet provide the same voltage. The alkaline battery gets its name because it has an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide instead of the acidic ammonium chloride or zinc chloride electrolyte of the zinc-carbon batteries. Other battery systems also use alkaline electrolytes, but they use different active materials for the electrodes. Alkaline batteries are used in many household items such as MP3 players, CD players, digital cameras, toys, lights and radios. A mercury battery (mercuric oxide battery, mercury cell or button cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell. Mercury batte ...
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