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Researc paper on groundwater in the gulf region 5200 words plus references

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Consequences of excessive groundwater abstraction in the Gulf Region
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1. Introduction
There are various reasons for sustainable water resources management: water scarcity, conflicts,
unpredictability due to meteorological elements such as precipitation, growing demand due to
irrigation, and population growth in general. Additional pressure is on the researchers
investigating this area due to climate and the change in socio-economic system around the globe,
(Saputra et al., 2018). The majority (approximately 70%) of the world's freshwater use is
currently allocated to irrigation, and the rest is utilized for industrial (19%) and everyday or
domestic use (11%). The frightening fact is that according to some research (Saputra et al., 2018)
only 60% of the used water ends up back in the rivers and groundwater.
Renewable groundwater is found in shallow aquifers which are naturally recharged through rain.
However, in arid countries it is often necessary for the water intended for agricultural needs to be
drawn from deeper aquifers. Such is the case with the countries of the Gulf Region in the Middle
East with hardly renewable aquifers (fossil aquifers). Furthermore, over-abstraction of
groundwater along coastal areas in the Gulf Region and worldwide has deteriorated groundwater
quality due to seawater intrusion and consequent salinity increase.
Tularam and Krishna (2009) investigated the consequences of intense groundwater pumping and
discovered that the most severe impacts include seawater intrusion, aquifer overdraft (i.e., when
the abstraction of groundwater from an aquifer exceeds the recharge), and fresh groundwater
reduction. According to the authors, seawater intrusion is believed to be the most pressing issue.
Similar conclusions were presented by Jury and Vaux (2005).
There are numerous approaches for resolving issues related to severe groundwater depletion in
the Gulf Region countries, including reducing agricultural activities, and reducing the over-
extraction of groundwater resources. As a consequence, these agricultural commodities are being

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Consequences of excessive groundwater abstraction in the Gulf Region Course number: Instructor’s name: Student’s name: Student’s number: 1 1. Introduction There are various reasons for sustainable water resources management: water scarcity, conflicts, unpredictability due to meteorological elements such as precipitation, growing demand due to irrigation, and population growth in general. Additional pressure is on the researchers investigating this area due to climate and the change in socio-economic system around the globe, (Saputra et al., 2018). The majority (approximately 70%) of the world's freshwater use is currently allocated to irrigation, and the rest is utilized for industrial (19%) and everyday or domestic use (11%). The frightening fact is that according to some research (Saputra et al., 2018) only 60% of the used water ends up back in the rivers and groundwater. Renewable groundwater is found in shallow aquifers which are naturally recharged through rain. However, in arid countries it is often necessary for the water intended for agricultural needs to be drawn from deeper aquifers. Such is the case with the countries of the Gulf Region in the Middle East with hardly renewable aquifers (fossil aquifers). Furthermore, over-abstraction of groundwater along coastal areas in the Gulf Region and worldwide has deteriorated groundwater quality due to seawater intrusion and consequent salinity increase. Tularam and Krishna (2009) investigated the consequences of ...
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