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33875616 endocrine review notes

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UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS
COLLEGE OF NURSING
ENDOCRINE NOTES
Endocrine glands and its hormones:
PITUITARY GLAND master gland since it controls all the other glands of the endocrine system
1.) Anterior Pituitary Gland ( adenohypophysis) outgrowth of the pharynx
G H (somatotropine) - stimulation of somatic growth
TSH - stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormones
PROLACTIN - regulation of milk production
ACTH - stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete adrenal hormones
LH - in women stimulate ovarian follicular development and ovulation, LH stimulates testosterone
biosynthesis in men
FSH female egg cell production or male sperm production
MSH - cause hyperpigmentation of skin
2.) Posterior Pituitary Gland ( neurohypophysis) extension of the hypothalamus
Oxytocin - stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle cells, stimulates milk delivery from the breast
during lactation.
ADH ( Vasopressin) - promotes water conservation by the kidney
ADRENAL GLANDS a pair of glands located on top of the kidney poles
1.)adrenal cortex outer part of the adrenal gland
Sugar glucocorticoids ( cortisone)
Salt mineralocorticoids ( aldosterone)
Sex gonadal hormones ( androgen, estrogen)
2.) adrenal medulla inner part of the adrenal gland
CATECHOLAMINES fight or flight response of the body
Epinephrine ( adrenalin)
Norepinephrine ( noradrenalin)
THYROID GLAND
T3 ( TRIIDOTHYRONINE) metabolically active form of T4
T4 (THYROXINE) contains iodine essential for normal growth and metabolism
THYROCALCITONIN decreases calcium concentration in the blood
PARATHYROID GLAND
PARATHYROID HORMONE( PARATHORMONE, PTH)
- increases calcium concentration in the blood
PANCREAS
2 FUNCTIONS:
1. EXOCRINE Produces pancreatic juices which are used in the duodenum as an important part in the
digestive system
2. ENDOCRINE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS -
ALPHA CELLS (GLUCAGON) increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis

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BETA CELLS (INSULIN) decreases blood glucose by glycogenesis, transports glucose into cells for
utilization
DELTA CELLS (SOMATOSTATIN) inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
Disorders of the Pituitary Gland
HYPOPITUITARISM
( dwarfism)
HYPERPITUITARISM
( gigantism, acromegaly)
DEFINITION
Hyposecretion of GH
Hypersecretion of GH
gigantism before closure of
epiphyseal plate
acromegaly after closure of
epiphyseal plate
S/S
Retarded physical growth
Premature aging
Low intellectual devt
Poor devt of secondary sex
characteristics
Coarse facial features
Large hands and feet
Thickening and protrusion of
the jaw
Arthritic changes
Organomegaly
MANAGEMENT
provide emotional support
encourage expression of
feelings r/t altered body image
prepare to administer human
growth hormone(hGH)
provide emotional support r/t
altered body image
provide frequent skin care
provide pharmacological and
nonpharmacological
interventions for joint pain
prepare the client for radiation
of the pituitary gland as
prescribe
SURGERY
HYPOPHYSECTOMY
COMPLICATION/S
Increase ICP
Bleeding
CSF leakage
Temporary DI
DIABETES INSIPIDUS
(DI)
SYNDROME OF
INAPPROPRIATE
SECRETION OF ADH
(SIADH)
DEFINITION
Hyposecretion of ADH
Hypersecretion of ADH
LAB/DX
(+) fluid deprivation test
S/S
Polyuria of 4 to 24 L/day
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Inability to concentrate urine
A low urinary specific
gravity:1.006 or less
Postural hypotension
Signs of fluid overload
Weight gain
Hypertension
Dilutional Hyponatremia
Changes in LOC and
mental status changes
MANAGEMENT
monitor electrolyte values and
for signs of dehydration
monitor I&O, weights, specific
gravity of urine
provide a safe envt, particularly
for the client with changes in
LOC
monitor I&O and obtain daily
weights

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1 UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS COLLEGE OF NURSING ENDOCRINE NOTES Endocrine glands and its hormones: PITUITARY GLAND – master gland since it controls all the other glands of the endocrine system 1.) Anterior Pituitary Gland ( adenohypophysis) – outgrowth of the pharynx G H (somatotropine) - stimulation of somatic growth TSH - stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormones PROLACTIN - regulation of milk production ACTH - stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete adrenal hormones LH - in women stimulate ovarian follicular development and ovulation, LH stimulates testosterone biosynthesis in men FSH – female egg cell production or male sperm production MSH - cause hyperpigmentation of skin 2.) Posterior Pituitary Gland ( neurohypophysis) – extension of the hypothalamus Oxytocin - stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle cells, stimulates milk delivery from the breast during lactation. ADH ( Vasopressin) - promotes water conservation by the kidney ADRENAL GLANDS – a pair of glands located on top of the kidney poles 1.)adrenal cortex – outer part of the adrenal gland Sugar – glucocorticoids ( cortisone) Salt – mineralocorticoids ( aldosterone) Sex – gonadal hormones ( androgen, estrogen) 2.) adrenal medulla – inner part of the adrenal gland CATECHOLAMINES – fight or flight response of the body Epinephrine ( adrenalin) Norepinephrine ( noradrenalin) THYROID GLAND T3 ( TRIIDOTHYRONINE) – metabolically active form of T4 T4 (THYROXINE) – contains iodi ...
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