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44237896 cardiac disorders

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CARDIAC DISORDERS
- Generic term for disorders of heart and blood vessels
- Disorders of Myocardial perfusion --------Oxygenation
Coronary Artery Disease
Angina Pectoris
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Cardiac Dysrthythmia
Sudden Cardiac Death
1. Review of Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System
THE HEART: ITS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
Pericardium
Two-layered sac that encases and protects the heart
Atrium
Right Atrium
Left Atrium
Upper, receiving chambers of the heart
Receives deoxygenated systemic blood via superior and inferior vena
cava; blood passes to right ventricle
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs; blood passes to the left
ventricle
Ventricles
Lower, pumping chambers of the heart
Right ventricle
Left Ventricles
Receives blood from atrium via the tricuspid valve; pumps it to the
pulmonary circulation
Receives blood from atrium via the bicuspid (mitral valve); pumps it to
the systemic circulation
Cardiac Valves
Atrioventricular
valves
Semilunar valves
Prevent backflow of blood
Prevent backflow from right atrium (tricuspid valve) and from left
ventricle to left atrium (mitral valve)
Prevent backflow from pulmonary artery to right ventricle (pulmonic
valve) and from aorta to left ventricle (aortic valve)
Coronary Arteries
Right coronary
artery
Left Coronary
Artery:
- Left anterior
descending
artery
- Circumflex
artery
Provide blood supply to the heart
Profuse right atrium, right ventricle, inferior portion of the left
ventricle and posterior septal wall, SA node , AV node
Supplies blood to anterior wall of left ventricle, anterior ventricular
septum, and apex of the left ventricle
Provides blood to left atrium, lateral and posterior surfaces of the left
ventricle, occasionally the posterior intraventricular septum
SA node
“pacemaker” node, initiates heartbeat by generating an electrical
impulse

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AV node
Normal pathway for impulses originating in the atria to be conducted
to ventricles; can be a secondary pacemaker
Bundle of His, bundle
branches, Purkinje’s fiber
Rapidly transmit cardiac action potentials to enable synchronous
contraction of ventricles
Electrophysiologic Properties of the heart
Excitability- ability of the heart to respond to an electrical impulse
Automaticity- ability to initiate an electrical impulse
Conductivity- ability to transmit an electrical impulse from one cell to another
Contractility- force exerted for heart to contract
Refractoriness- ability to respond to new stimulus
CARDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL
5 PHASES:
I. Phase 0 : cellular depolarization is initiated as positive ions influx into the cell
II. Phase 1 : Early cellular repolarization begins during this phase as potassium exits the
intracellular space
III. Phase 2: This phase is called the plateau phase because the rate of repolarization slows. Ca+
enters the intracellular space
IV. Phase 3: completion of repolarization and return of the cell to its resting state
V. Phase 4: resting phase before the next depolarization
Cardiac Output
Volume of blood ejected/min by rhythmic ventricular contraction
o CO= Stroke Volume x HR
o Averages between 4-8L/min in adults
Stoke volume has a major influence on cardiac output
o Preload
o Afterload
o Contractile state of the heart
Heart rate
Autonomic Nervous System and the Heart
Parasympathetic nerve activity
Sympathetic nerve activity
Adrenergic receptor stimulation
o Alpha1 adrenergic receptors
o Alpha2 adrenergic receptors
o Beta1 adrenergic receptors
o Beta2 adrenergic receptors

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CARDIAC DISORDERS - Generic term for disorders of heart and blood vessels - Disorders of Myocardial perfusion --------Oxygenation ➢ Coronary Artery Disease ➢ Angina Pectoris ➢ Acute Myocardial Infarction ➢ Cardiac Dysrthythmia ➢ Sudden Cardiac Death 1. Review of Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System THE HEART: ITS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION STRUCTURE FUNCTION Pericardium Two-layered sac that encases and protects the heart Atrium Upper, receiving chambers of the heart Receives deoxygenated systemic blood via superior and inferior vena • Right Atrium cava; blood passes to right ventricle Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs; blood passes to the left • Left Atrium ventricle Ventricles Lower, pumping chambers of the heart Receives blood from atrium via the tricuspid valve; pumps it to the • Right ventricle pulmonary circulation Receives blood from atrium via the bicuspid (mitral valve); pumps it to • Left Ventricles the systemic circulation Cardiac Valves • Atrioventricular valves • Semilunar valves Coronary Arteries • Right coronary artery • Left Coronary Artery: - Left anterior descending artery - Circumflex artery SA node Prevent backflow of blood Prevent backflow from right atrium (tricuspid valve) and from left ventricle to left atrium (mitral valve) Prevent backflow from pulmonary artery to right ventricle (pulmonic valve) and from aorta to left ventricle (aortic valve) Provide blood supply to the heart Profuse right atrium, right v ...
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