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271653139 anatomy ch 6 outline

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Functions of the Skeletal System
1) Support
a. Strong bone is well suited for bearing weight and is the major supporting
tissue
b. Cartilage provides firm, yet flexible support
2) Protection
3) Movement
4) Storage
a. Calcium and phosphorous
b. Adipose tissue stores in bone cavities
5) Blood cell production
a. Bone cavities are filled with bone marrow give rise to blood cells and
platelets
Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is most associated with bone
o Precursor for most bones in the body
o Bone lengthening and repair involve the production of hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage consist of chondroblasts
o Chondroblasts produce a matric surrounding themselves
When matrix surrounds chondroblasts it becomes chondrocyte
Chondrocyte: round cell that occupies a space called lacuna within
a matrix
o The matrix contains collagen (provides strength) &
proteoglycan (make cartilage resilient by trapping water)
Perichondrium: a double-layered connective tissue sheath covering most cartilage
o Blood vessels and nerves penetrate the outer layer of the perichondrium but do
not enter the cartilage matrix
Nutrients must diffuse through the cartilage matrix to reach the
chondrocytes
o The outer layer dense irregular connective tissue
Containing fibroblasts
o The inner layer more delicate layer
Few fibers and contains chondroblasts
Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage
o Covers the ends of bone where they come together to form joints
o No blood vessel, perichondrium, or nerves
Cartilage grows in two way
1) Appositional growth
a. Chondroblasts in the perichondrium add new cartilage to the outside edge
of existing cartilage
i. The chondroblasts lay down new matrix and add new chondrocytes
to the outside of the tissue

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2) Interstitial growth
a. Chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between
existing cells
Bone Histology
Bone consists of extracellular matrix and bone cells
o Bone cells produce the matrix and become entrapped within it
Bone Matrix
Organic material: collagen and proteoglycans
Inorganic material: calcium phosphate crystal called hydroxyapatite
Collagen adds flexible strength to the bone
Mineral components adds weight-bearing strength
Bone cells
Classified as:
1) Osteoblasts
2) Osteocytes
3) Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts
Osteoblasts: bone forming cells
o Have an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and numerous ribosome
Produce collagen and proteoglycan
Release matrix vesicles
o Matrix vesicles: membrane-bound sacs formed when the plasma membrane buds,
or protrudes outward, and pinches off
Concentrate Ca2+ and PO43- & form hydroxyapatite crystals
When the crystals are released they stimulate further
hydroxyapatite formation and mineralization of the matrix
Ossification (osteogenesis): formation of bone by osteoblasts
o Appositional growth on surface of previously existing bone or cartilage
Osteocytes
Once an osteoblast becomes surrounded by bone matrix referred to as osteocyte
o Osteocytes are relatively inactive compared to osteoblasts
Lacunae: spaces occupied by the osteocyte cell bodies
o Canaliculi: Spaces occupied by the osteocyte cell processes
Bone cells are in contact with each other through the canaliculi
Nutrients and gases can pass through the small amount of fluid
surrounding the cells in the canaliculi and lacunae or pass from cell
to cell through gap junctions connecting cell processes

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Functions of the Skeletal System 1) Support a. Strong bone is well suited for bearing weight and is the major supporting tissue b. Cartilage provides firm, yet flexible support 2) Protection 3) Movement 4) Storage a. Calcium and phosphorous b. Adipose tissue stores in bone cavities 5) Blood cell production a. Bone cavities are filled with bone marrow→ give rise to blood cells and platelets Cartilage • Hyaline cartilage is most associated with bone o Precursor for most bones in the body o Bone lengthening and repair involve the production of hyaline cartilage • Hyaline cartilage consist of chondroblasts o Chondroblasts produce a matric surrounding themselves ▪ When matrix surrounds chondroblasts→ it becomes chondrocyte • Chondrocyte: round cell that occupies a space called lacuna within a matrix o The matrix contains collagen (provides strength) & proteoglycan (make cartilage resilient by trapping water) • Perichondrium: a double-layered connective tissue sheath covering most cartilage o Blood vessels and nerves penetrate the outer layer of the perichondrium but do not enter the cartilage matrix ▪ Nutrients must diffuse through the cartilage matrix to reach the chondrocytes o The outer layer→ dense irregular connective tissue ▪ Containing fibroblasts o The inner layer→ more delicate layer ▪ Few fibers and contains chondroblasts • Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage o Covers the ends of bone where they come together to form joints o No blood vessel, ...
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