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62223031 chapter 1 the human organism

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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
- The study of the structure and function of the human body
- Knowledge of the structure and function of the human body is the
basis for understanding disease.
ANATOMY
- The scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body
- The word ‘Anatomy’ means to dissect or cut apart and separate, the
parts of the body for study.
- Examines the relationship between the structure of the body and its
function.
2 Basic approaches to the study of anatomy:
1. Systemic Anatomy (The Study of the Body By Systems)
2. Regional Anatomy (The study of the organization of the body by
areas)
*Surface Anatomy
- The study of external features, such as bony projections, which
serve as landmarks for location deeper structures
*Anatomical Imaging
- Involves the use of X-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of
internal structures
PHYSIOLOGY
- The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of
living things.
MAJOR GOALS OF PHYSIOLOGY:
1. To understand and predict the body’s responses to stimuli
2. To understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow
range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment.
PHYSIOLOGY IS DIVIED ACCORDING TO:
1. The organisms involved
2. The levels of organization within a given organism

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HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Cellular Physiology & Systemic Physiology both emphasize specific
organizational levels.
STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
1. Chemical Level
a. Involves interactions between atoms, which are tiny building
blocks of matter.
b. Atoms combine to form molecules.
2. Cell Level
a. Cells are basic structural and functional units of organisms
b. Molecules combine to form organelles, which are the small
structures that make up cells.
3. Tissue Level
a. A tissue is a group of similar cells an the materials surrounding
them
b. 4 primary tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
4. Organ Level
a. Composed of 2 or more tissue types that together perform one or
more common functions.
5. Organ System Level
a. An organ system is a group of organs classified as a unit because of
a common function.
b. There are 11 major organ systems
i. Integumentary
ii. Skeletal
iii. Muscular
iv. Lymphatic
v. Respiratory
vi. Digestive
vii. Nervous
viii. Endocrine
ix. Cardiovascular
x. Urinary
xi. Reproductive
6. Organism Level
a. Any living thing considered as a whole.

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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - The study of the structure and function of the human body Knowledge of the structure and function of the human body is the basis for understanding disease. ANATOMY - The scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body The word ‘Anatomy’ means to dissect or cut apart and separate, the parts of the body for study. Examines the relationship between the structure of the body and its function. 2 Basic approaches to the study of anatomy: 1. Systemic Anatomy (The Study of the Body By Systems) 2. Regional Anatomy (The study of the organization of the body by areas) *Surface Anatomy - The study of external features, such as bony projections, which serve as landmarks for location deeper structures *Anatomical Imaging - Involves the use of X-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures PHYSIOLOGY - The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things. MAJOR GOALS OF PHYSIOLOGY: 1. To understand and predict the body’s responses to stimuli 2. To understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment. PHYSIOLOGY IS DIVIED ACCORDING TO: 1. The organisms involved 2. The levels of organization within a given organism HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Cellular Physiology & Systemic Physiology – both emphasize specific organizational levels. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL OR ...
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