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Anatomy and Physiology
URINARY SYSTEM
Kidneys
Each kidney is behind the peritoneum and surrounded by a renal capsule and adipose tissue.
The kidney is divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla.
Each renal pyramid has a base located at the boundary between the cortex and medulla, and the tip extends toward the
center of the kidney and is surrounded by a calyx.
Calyces are extensions of the renal pelvis, which is the expanded end of the ureter within the renal sinus.
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The parts of the nephron are the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the
loop of Henle and the distal tubule.
The filtration membrane is formed by the glomerular capillaries, the basement membrane and the podocytes of Bowman’s
capsule.
Arteries and Veins
Renal arteries give rise to branches that lead to afferent arterioles.

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Afferent arterioles supply the glomeruli.
Efferent arterioles carry blood from the glomeruli to the pertibular capillaries.
Blood from the pertibular capillaries flows to the renal veins.
Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra
Each ureter carries urine from renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.
The urethra carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined with transitional epithelium and have smooth muscle on their walls.
The external urinary sphincter regulates the flow of urine through the urethra.
Functions of the Urinary System
The kidneys excrete waste products.
The kidneys control blood volume by regulating the volume of urine produced.
The kidneys help regulate the concentration of major ions in the body fluids.
The kidneys help regulate pH of the body fluids
The kidneys regulate the concentration of red blood cells in the blood.
The kidneys participate, with the skin and liver, in Vitamin D synthesis.

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Anatomy and Physiology URINARY SYSTEM Kidneys • • • • • • Each kidney is behind the peritoneum and surrounded by a renal capsule and adipose tissue. The kidney is divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Each renal pyramid has a base located at the boundary between the cortex and medulla, and the tip extends toward the center of the kidney and is surrounded by a calyx. Calyces are extensions of the renal pelvis, which is the expanded end of the ureter within the renal sinus. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The parts of the nephron are the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule. The filtration membrane is formed by the glomerular capillaries, the basement membrane and the podocytes of Bowman’s capsule. Arteries and Veins • Renal arteries give rise to branches that lead to afferent arterioles. • • • Afferent arterioles supply the glomeruli. Efferent arterioles carry blood from the glomeruli to the pertibular capillaries. Blood from the pertibular capillaries flows to the renal veins. Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra • • • • Each ureter carries urine from renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. The urethra carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The ureters and urinary bladder are lined with transitional epithelium and have smooth muscle on their walls. The external urinary sphincter regulates the flow of urine through the urethra. Functions of t ...
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