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Epidemiological Determinants

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Epidemiological Determinants
Zika virus infections were known for their endemicity in the African and South-east Asian
continents for long. The first ever case described in the history is one occurring in 1947 (McNeil
Jr., 2016). However, the disease had an obscure epidemiological profile in these regions. It only
gained its epidemiological significance in the year 2007, when it resulted in an outbreak in the
states of Micronesia. As of the year 2017, after ten years of the first outbreak, 750,000 cases of
the disease have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) alone, which
demonstrates a high prevalence of the disease. As of the year 2018, an incidence of as many as
5716 cases has been described in the states of the US. Therefore, the morbidity rates associated
with the infection are quite high. The mortality or fatality rates associated with Zika virus
infections are estimated to be 8.30 %.
The determinants of the Zika virus outbreak include the disease agent, which is a single-stranded
RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. The route of
transmission of the disease is vector-borne, spreading through the Aedes species mosquitos like
Aedes Aegypti and Albopictus. Risk factors include low immunity states like tuberculosis and
HIV, exposure to mosquitos, unhygienic environments favoring the breeding of mosquitos, older
age groups, and occupations exposing individuals to mosquitos.
References
McNeil Jr., D. (2016). Hawaii Baby With Brain Damage Is First U.S. Case Tied to Zika Virus.
Nytimes.com. Retrieved 15 April 2020, from
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/17/health/hawaii-reports-baby-born-with-brain-
damage-linked-to-zika-virus.html.

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Epidemiological Determinants Zika virus infections were known for their endemicity in the African and South-east Asian continents for long. The first ever case described in the history is one occurring in 1947 (McNeil Jr., 2016). However, the disease had an obscure epidemiological profile in these r ...
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