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Nursing Assignment no 1

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Assignment no. 1
Scenario 1:
Based on the clinical scenario, Jennifer is most likely suffering from Acute Pharyngitis, which is
an inflammation of the throat and is often called sore throat. In acute pharyngitis, the pharynx is
inflamed due to bacterial, viral or fungal infections. Colonization of these organisms in the
region of throat leads to inflammation of the throat, hence redness, congestion and edema and
swelling of the region which were observed in the case of throat examination of Jennifer. The
most common organism implicated in the pathophysiology of sore throat or pharyngitis is the
streptococcus, a bacterium and the condition is known as streptococcal sore throat. Diffuse
exudates as a result of inflammation are seen on examination.
As a result of the invasion of the disease producing organism or pathogen, a local inflammatory
response is undertaken by the body which leads to the inflammation of the throat. The inflamed
throat has its mucosa swollen due to the action of inflammatory mediators which give rise to the
classic signs of inflammation including pain, swelling and redness. The associated lymph nodes
get swollen due to being flooded by the white blood cells which ingest the bacteria invading the
throat.
Due to massive inflammation, the inflammatory mediators also give rise to high grade fever,
swelling of the throat and the resulting inability to swallow (Acute Pharyngitis, 2018).
Scenario 2

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Jack, a 27 years old maintenance engineer dealing frequently with chemicals and chemical
products with his hands is most probably suffering from Irritant contact dermatitis.
The pathophysiology of the condition is described as follows. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is
a condition which results due to substantial inflammation subsequent to the release of
inflammation producing cytokines by the cells of the skin, mostly the cells called Keratinocytes
as a reaction to a chemical stimulus. Irritant contact dermatitis occurs due to an activated innate
immunity in the absence of sensitization, which is the main differentiating feature from allergic
contact dermatitis. Various pictures of the immune response can be seen. The 3 major patho-
physiological features observed are discontinuation of the barrier effect of skin, changes in the
epidermal skin cells, and release of mediators of inflammation called cytokines.
The associated alterations and patient’s adaptive response to the condition are described as
follows. An array of external stimulants like ultra-violet radiation and chemicals can result in the
cells in the skin called keratinocytes in releasing the following cytokines:
The Inflammatory-cytokines like IL-1 & TNF.
Chemotactic cytokines like IL-8 & IL-10.
Growth promoting cytokines like IL-6, IL-7. IL15 etc.
Cytokines mediating humoral and cellular immunity like IL-10, IL-12 & IL-18.
As a result of these pathophysiological changes and the associated alterations, the adaptive
response of the body leads to localized inflammations in the hands which manifests as redness
and swelling of the hands (Irritant Contact Dermatitis, 2017)

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Assignment no. 1 Scenario 1: Based on the clinical scenario, Jennifer is most likely suffering from Acute Pharyngitis, which is an inflammation of the throat and is often called sore throat. In acute pharyngitis, the pharynx is inflamed due to bacterial, viral or fungal infections. Colonization of these organisms in the region of throat leads to inflammation of the throat, hence redness, congestion and edema and swelling of the region which were observed in the case of throat examination of Jennifer. The most common organism implicated in the pathophysiology of sore throat or pharyngitis is the streptococcus, a bacterium and the condition is known as streptococcal sore throat. Diffuse exudates as a result of inflammation are seen on examination. As a result of the invasion of the disease producing organism or pathogen, a local inflammatory response is undertaken by the body which leads to the inflammation of the throat. The inflamed throat has its mucosa swollen due to the action of inflammatory mediators which give rise to the classic signs of inflammation including pain, swelling and redness. The associated lymph nodes get swollen due to being flooded by the white blood cells whi ...
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