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1. What is meant by the term social stratification? Explain the two types using your
book.
Unlike most games, real life is filled with differences in wealth and other resources a
society values. Sociologists refer to rankings based on these differences as social
stratification. Except for the simplest preindustrial societies, every society is stratified to
some extent, and some societies are more stratified than others. Another way of saying
this is that some societies have more economic inequality, or a greater difference between
the best-off and the worst-off, than others. In modern society, stratification is usually
determined by income and other forms of wealth, such as stocks and bonds, but resources
such as power and prestige matter, too. No matter what determines it, a society’s
stratification has significant consequences for its members’ attitudes, behavior, and,
perhaps most important of all, life chanceshow well people do in such areas as
education, income, and health (p.254).
In some so-called closed societies, an individual has virtually no chance of moving up or
down. Open societies have more vertical mobility, as some people, and perhaps many
people, can move up or even down (p. 255).
2. What is social mobility?
The degree of vertical social mobility is a key distinguishing feature of systems of
stratification. Class systems such as in the United States are thought to be open, meaning
that social mobility is relatively high. It is important, then, to determine how much social
mobility exists in the United States. Here we need to distinguish between two types of
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vertical social mobility. Intergenerational mobility refers to mobility from one generation
to the next within the same family. If children from poor parents end up in high-paying
jobs, the children have experienced upward intergenerational mobility. Conversely, if
children of college professors’ end up hauling trash for a living, these children have
experienced downward intergenerational mobility. Intra-generational mobility refers to
mobility within a person’s own lifetime (p.274)
3. Explain the functionalists, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspective of social
stratification.
An explanation of the three perspectives of social stratification is as follows (p. 261):
Functionalism
Stratification is necessary to induce people with special intelligence, knowledge, and
skills to enter the most important occupations. For this reason, stratification is necessary
and inevitable.
Conflict
Stratification results from lack of opportunity and from discrimination and prejudice
against the poor, women, and people of color. It is neither necessary nor inevitable.
Symbolic interactionism
Stratification affects people’s beliefs, lifestyles, daily interaction, and conceptions of
themselves.
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4. What is meant by the term global stratification? How do we measure poverty?
Global stratification (p.296) refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige,
resources, and influence among the world’s nations. Put more simply, there is an extreme
difference between the richest and poorest nations. A few nations, such as the United
States, are very, very wealthy, while many more nations are very, very poor. Reflecting
this later fact, 40% of the world’s population, or about 2 billion people, lives on less than
$2 per day (United Nations Development Programme, 2005).
In addition to classifying nations according to their ranking on a stratification typology,
scholars and international organizations also determine the level of poverty in each
nation. This determination provides valuable information beyond a nation’s GDP per
capita or similar measure of wealth. Wealth and poverty are, of course, highly correlated:
generally speaking, the wealthier a nation, the lower its level of poverty. However, this
correlation is not perfect, and considering nations only in terms of their wealth may
obscure important differences in their levels of poverty. For example, two nations, which
we will call Nation A and Nation B, may have similar GDP per capita. In Nation A,
wealth from its GDP is fairly evenly distributed, and relatively few people are poor. In
Nation B, almost all wealth is held by a small number of incredibly rich people, and
many people are poor. A nation’s level of poverty thus tells us what proportion of the
population is living in dire straits, regardless of the nation’s level of wealth (p.304)
5. Compare and contrast modernization theory to dependency theory.
Modernization Theory
Dependency Theory
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Wealthy nations became wealthy because
early on they were able to develop the
necessary beliefs, values, and practices for
trade, industrialization, and rapid economic
growth to occur. Poor nations remained
poor because they failed to develop these
beliefs, values, and practices; instead, they
continued to follow traditional beliefs and
practices that stymied industrial
development and modernization. (p.325)
The poverty of poor nations stems from
their colonization by European nations,
which exploited the poor nations’
resources and either enslaved their
populations or used them as cheap labor.
The colonized nations were thus unable to
develop a professional and business class
that would have enabled them to enter the
industrial age and to otherwise develop
their economies. (p.325)
6. What are the consequences of poverty for people in the United States and around
the world?
Global poverty has a devastating impact. Poor nations suffer tremendously on human
development indicators such as health, education, and mortality. • Women in poor nations
fare much worse than men in these nations. They are victims of violence and other abuse
because they are women, and they are less likely to attend school and more likely to be
poor. • Children in poor nations are much more likely than those in wealthy nations to die
before age 5 and to suffer from malnutrition and disease (p. 323)
7. Find a movie or video about global poverty and note link or name of movie below.
Welcome To The World - Why Poverty?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KigXe6RIczw
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1. What is meant by the term social stratification? Explain the two types using your book. Unlike most games, real life is filled with differences in wealth and other resources a society values. Sociologists refer to rankings based on these differences as social stratification. Except for the simplest preindustrial societies, every society is stratified to some extent, and some societies are more stratified than others. Another way of saying this is that some societies have more economic inequality, or a greater difference between the best-off and the worst-off, than others. In modern society, stratification is usually determined by income and other forms of wealth, such as stocks and bonds, but resources such as power and prestige matter, too. No matter what determines it, a society’s stratification has significant consequences for its members’ attitudes, behavior, and, perhaps most important of all, life chances—how well people do in such areas as education, income, and health (p.254). In some so-called closed societies, an individual has virtually no chance of moving up or down. Open societies have more vertical mobility, as some people, and perhaps many people, can move up or even down (p. 255). 2. What is social mobility? The degree of vertical social mobility is a key distinguishing feature of systems of stratification. Class systems such as in the United States are thought to be open, meaning that social mobility is relatively high. It is important, then, to determine how much social mobility exists in the United States. Here we need to distinguish between two types of vertical social mobility. Intergenerational mobility refers to mobility from one generation to the next within the same family. If children from poor parents end up in high-paying jobs, the children have experienced upward intergenerational mobility. Conversely, if children of college professors’ end up hauling trash for a living, these children have experienced downward intergenerational mobility. Intra-generational mobility refers to mobility within a person’s own lifetime (p.274) 3. Explain the functionalists, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspective of social stratification. An explanation of the three perspectives of social stratification is as follows (p. 261): Functionalism Stratification is necessary to induce people with special intelligence, knowledge, and skills to enter the most important occupations. For this reason, stratification is necessary and inevitable. Conflict Stratification results from lack of opportunity and from discrimination and prejudice against the poor, women, and people of color. It is neither necessary nor inevitable. Symbolic interactionism Stratification affects people’s beliefs, lifestyles, daily interaction, and conceptions of themselves. 4. What is meant by the term global stratification? How do we measure poverty? Global stratification (p.296) refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige, resources, and influence among the world’s nations. Put more simply, there is an extreme difference between the richest and poorest nations. A few nations, such as the United States, are very, very wealthy, while many more nations are very, very poor. Reflecting this later fact, 40% of the world’s population, or about 2 billion people, lives on less than $2 per day (United Nations Development Programme, 2005). In addition to classifying nations according to their ranking on a stratification typology, scholars and international organizations also determine the level of poverty in each nation. This determination provides valuable information beyond a nation’s GDP per capita or similar measure of wealth. Wealth and poverty are, of course, highly correlated: generally speaking, the wealthier a nation, the lower its level of poverty. However, this correlation is not perfect, and considering nations only in terms of their wealth may obscure important differences in their levels of poverty. For example, two nations, which we will call Nation A and Nation B, may have similar GDP per capita. In Nation A, wealth from its GDP is fairly evenly distributed, and relatively few people are poor. In Nation B, almost all wealth is held by a small number of incredibly rich people, and many people are poor. A nation’s level of poverty thus tells us what proportion of the population is living in dire straits, regardless of the nation’s level of wealth (p.304) 5. Compare and contrast modernization theory to dependency theory. Modernization Theory Dependency Theory Wealthy nations became wealthy because The poverty of poor nations stems from early on they were able to develop the their colonization by European nations, necessary beliefs, values, and practices for which exploited trade, industrialization, and rapid economic resources and the either poor nations’ enslaved their growth to occur. Poor nations remained populations or used them as cheap labor. poor because they failed to develop these The colonized nations were thus unable to beliefs, values, and practices; instead, they develop a professional and business class continued to follow traditional beliefs and that would have enabled them to enter the practices that stymied industrial industrial age and to otherwise develop development and modernization. (p.325) their economies. (p.325) 6. What are the consequences of poverty for people in the United States and around the world? Global poverty has a devastating impact. Poor nations suffer tremendously on human development indicators such as health, education, and mortality. • Women in poor nations fare much worse than men in these nations. They are victims of violence and other abuse because they are women, and they are less likely to attend school and more likely to be poor. • Children in poor nations are much more likely than those in wealthy nations to die before age 5 and to suffer from malnutrition and disease (p. 323) 7. Find a movie or video about global poverty and note link or name of movie below. Welcome To The World - Why Poverty? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KigXe6RIczw Name: Description: ...
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