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Discussion
The research investigation had the aim of examining the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the people adults living in
the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The research investigation used systematic analyses and meta-analyses of the
research studies already undertaken in this regard to answer the primary research question proposed by the
investigators. The results and findings of the research found that the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the population
of the GCC countries was 16 %. This implies that nearly every sixth person living in GCC countries was suffering
from osteoarthritis. The quality of research publications included in the meta-analysis and systematic analysis
ranged from having weak to having a moderate quality of evidence. Nevertheless, the included research
investigations were was relatively high in their heterogeneity.
The observed prevalence of 16 % in the population of GCC reflects the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in
these populations. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of Knee-osteoarthritis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
demonstrated the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in patients attending various primary healthcare facilities with
miscellaneous medical complaints to be 53.30 % in case of male patients, and 60.90 % of the female patients. The
study concluded that osteoarthritis knee joints were highly prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which seems
to be correlated with the high BMI of the people of Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of osteoarthritis in the knee joint
was found to be very high as compared to that found for osteoarthritis of any joint in the GCC countries,
suggesting noticeable population differences between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries
concerning the distribution and determinants of osteoarthritis.
Compared to the other nations in the world, osteoarthritis is found to be more prevalent in the nations comprising
the Gulf Cooperation Council, as well as in Asian countries [9]. The most commonly observed osteoarthritis in the
gulf and Arabian countries involve the lower limbs and the knee joint. As far as the European nations are
concerned, a lower prevalence of osteoarthritis has been found in these countries. A systematic review
undertaken to determine the impact of defining osteoarthritis operationally on its prevalence and incidence rates
demonstrated very low prevalence rates of the disease compared to those seen in the Middle Eastern populations
[10].

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In contrast with the European countries, osteoarthritis is a fairly common condition in the United States of
America. A study described the prevalence of osteoarthritis in males belonging to the United States to be 10.0 %,
while that in the case of the females to be 13.0 %. Therefore, there was a higher prevalence of the disease as
compared to the European nations. However, the prevalence was still lower than that in the Middle Eastern
countries [11].
The differences in the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the included research investigations and studies ranged from
1.5 % to 80.0 %. Therefore, the difference was quite high and was attributable to several factors. These factors
included the size of the sample, ages of the cases and the participants, the operational definitions of osteoarthritis
used by the various studies, and the techniques of sampling used for obtaining the requisite samples for various
studies. The host of these factors resulted in the discrepancies which were having their roles in the creation of
disparity in the estimated prevalence of osteoarthritis in subjects of the included studies.
For instance, the sample size had a range from 185 to 6609 study participants and such a high difference in the
sample sizes is a predictor of the variability in the results. An additional factor which determined the variability and
differences in results was that of the age of the participants. Age was not reported as a mean in three of the
included studies. The studies which reported the ages of participants as a mean had a range of mean age of the
participants from 41 years to 78.7 years.
Another reason for the variability and differences in the results of various studies was that of lack of uniformity in
operationally defining the condition. The definitions of osteoarthritis varied amongst various studies, and while
some studies included osteoarthritis of specified joints like the knee joints only, some included osteoarthritis of
all/any joint to satisfy the criteria for a case.
In addition to these heterogeneities, there were radical differences in the sampling methods and techniques
employed to make the research designs amongst the various studies. The sampling methods ranged from random,
house to house sampling methods, to systematic sampling, and convenience sampling techniques. Therefore, this
may have resulted in limited generalizability of the findings of the research to the entire population, and therefore
differences in results between the individual researches. It is, therefore, highly desirable that future research is

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Discussion The research investigation had the aim of examining the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the people adults living in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The research investigation used systematic analyses and meta-analyses of the research studies already undertaken in this regard to answer the primary research question proposed by the investigators. The results and findings of the research found that the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the population of the GCC countries was 16 %. This implies that nearly every sixth person living in GCC countries was suffering from osteoarthritis. The quality of research publications included in the meta-analysis and systematic analysis ranged from having weak to having a moderate quality of evidence. Nevertheless, the included research investigations were was relatively high in their heterogeneity. The observed prevalence of 16 % in the population of GCC reflects the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in these populations. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of Knee-osteoarthritis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia demonstrated the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in patients attending various primary healthcare facilities with ...
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Awesome! Perfect study aid.

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