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Name: 16.04.2018 BIO 4000 EVOLUTION
The selected article, “Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled
by vertebrate population losses and declines, published in Sciences Advances” by Ceballos
et al. endeavors to explain and imply that species extinction of species by us has lead us to move
to the 6th mass-extinction. To prove their point, the authors made a comparison of
thezextinctiondrates among terrestrial-vertebrates for the last couple of hundreds of years, to the
past legend rates available in the geological history. Nevertheless, such past rates were computed
solely employing records of extinction of mammals. Ceballos et al. believed that past extinction
data regarding mammals may be applicable to various categories of vertebrates which include
the birdsi, lreptiles, lamphibians as well as fish.
Employing such data based on mammals, Ceballos et al established that, in the absence of the
influence of man, merely 9 vertebrate-extinctions may had been expected after the year nineteen
hundred AD. As per the 2004 Red-List by IUCN, one hundred and ninety eight extinctions were
noted for all of the terrestrial-vertebrates after the year nineteen hundred.
The article notes that in clear contrast with the expected 9 extinctions within that period, the
enhancement of one hundred and eighty nine seems to denote a catastrophic impact of man on
extinction. Going retrospectively to the year fifteen hundred, the researchers note a sum of three
hundred and thirty eight being accounted for in the RedzList. Additionally, the researchers noted
some two hundred and seventy nine further speciesl categorized as being extinctl in the lwild as
well as ipossibly extincti classes.
These statistics generated a sum of six hundred and seventeen vertebrate species either gone or
considered to be gone starting from the year fifteen hundred. These substantial figures prompted

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Name: 16.04.2018 BIO 4000 EVOLUTION The selected article, “Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines, published in Sciences Advances” by Ceballos et al. endeavors to explain and imply that species extinction of species by us has lead us to move to the 6th mass-extinction. To prove their point, the authors made a comparison of thezextinctiondrates among terrestrial-vertebrates for the last couple of hundreds of years, to the past legend rates available in the geological history. Nevertheless, such past rates were co ...
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