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Investigation of Environmental and Pathologic-Resistant Bacteria Polluting
Kuwaiti Dust
Introduction
In the contemporary medical arena, antibiotic resistance and its effects are greatest healthcare
concerns of the day. Latest body of evidence implicates the environment as a critical element
in transmitting the resistant bacteria and for the surfacing of pathogens demonstrating
antibiotic resistance (Singer et al., 2016). Moreover, a solid appreciation of evolutionary and
ecological factors contributing to emergence of resistant genes in such microbes is not
present yet. This holds true for the dispersal barriers of the environment. These research gaps,
therefore, call for more lucid explanations of the development and evolution of resistant
genes, also regarding their mobilisation, transfer, and dissemination in the environment.
Antimicrobial resistance is responsible for a large proportion of mortality on annual basis.
Research has suggested a projection in its increase in the coming years, which has led the
World Health Organization (WHO) to make a recognition regarding its threats as a public
health hazard (Prestinaci, Pezzotti and Pantosti, 2015). As far as history of recognizing
danger and endeavours against antimicrobial resistance is concerned, activities aimed at
controlling development of resistance have primarily been initiated in the clinical settings and
at the community level. Very recently, the struggle has also commenced in the environmental
and agricultural context (Aslam et al., 2018). The aim of this struggle is reduction of the
transmission and prevention in selecting the resistant bacteria whilst undertaking antibiotic
therapies.
WHO has issued the warning that the contemporary world is fast heading to the post
antibiotic times, wherein a lot of trivial infections shall stand cureless, leading to
uncontrollable morbidity and mortality (Ventola, 2015). Furthermore, the hospitals and
healthcare facilities are fast turning into the hubs of extremely drug-resistant microorganisms,
bacteria, and other pathogens (Zaman et al., 2017). Such resistance is not only hazardous by
itself, but shall also make routine surgical procedures like cancer surgery and other surgical
operations extremely risky due to the chances of spread of drug-resistant infections. A
scientific report forecasts that by the middle of the twenty-first century, if there is no

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betterment in the current antibiotic resistance development scenario, the population figures of
the world shall be from 11 million to 440 million lesser than it is projected to be under the
current circumstances. Similarly, the world’s economic losses will make the economy shrink
by anywhere ranging from 0.06 per cent to 3.1 per cent (Taylor et al., 2014). Antimicrobial
resistance is normally linked to substantial mortality, morbidity, extended hospital stays, and
higher financial implications. Such financial burden linked to pathogens showing drug
resistance can be due to tendency to administer pricey antibiotic treatments, extended stays in
hospitals, and greater mortality rates.
In the last couple of years, the involvement of environmental factors being contributory to
sourcing and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance has gained considerable recognition.
However, the appreciation of the exact nature of how environment plays its contributory role
in propagation of antimicrobial resistance is still lacking. The insufficiency of such a
knowledge base regarding how, why, and when the environmental factors become
contributory to the development of resistance make antimicrobial resistance risk reduction
quite a difficult task. Various studies have shed light on the dire need for adoption of
alternate approaches to control antibiotic resistance (Gaur, 2017). One example is the holistic
approach to curb antimicrobial resistance, which includes the human beings, other living
organisms, and the external environment, which can also be labelled as a one health
approach.
Increasing knowledge base of the factors in the environment, which cause antimicrobial
resistance to emerge, can finally enable the stakeholders including researchers in building
novel models regarding the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and is dissemination
pattern, for a better control aimed at reducing its severity. Nevertheless, these novel models
are supposed to be of a descriptive nature initially, as much of the parameters they comprise
of are not known yet. Therefore, such models are thought of as lacking a considerable
predictive power. However, they would hold significant value being the indicators of the
most sought research knowledge gaps to be filled with the intent of developing an appropriate
risk reduction strategy against antimicrobial resistance.
Kuwait is a country in the western part of Asian continent, having its borders with Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia and Iraq. A greater part of the country consists of the Arabian Desert. The

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Investigation of Environmental and Pathologic-Resistant Bacteria Polluting Kuwaiti Dust Introduction In the contemporary medical arena, antibiotic resistance and its effects are greatest healthcare concerns of the day. Latest body of evidence implicates the environment as a critical element in transmitting the resistant bacteria and for the surfacing of pathogens demonstrating antibiotic resistance (Singer et al., 2016). Moreover, a solid appreciation of evolutionary and ecological factors contributing to emergence of resistant genes in such microbes is not present yet. This holds true for the dispersal barriers of the environment. These research gaps, therefore, call for more lucid explanations of the development and evolution of resistant genes, also regarding their mobilisation, transfer, and dissemination in the environment. Antimicrobial resistance is responsible for a large proportion of mortality on annual basis. Research has suggested a projection in its increase in the coming years, which has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to make a recognition regarding its threats as a public health hazard (Prestinaci, Pezzotti and Pantosti, 2015). As far as history of recognizing danger and endeavours against antimicrobial resistance is concerned, activities aimed at controlling development of resistance have primarily been initiated in the clinical settings and at the community level. Very recently, the struggle has also commenced in the environmental and agricultural c ...
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