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Revised EJOB 143075

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Investigation of Environmental and Pathologic-Resistant Bacteria Polluting
Kuwaiti Dust
Introduction
In the contemporary medical arena, antibiotic resistance and its effects are greatest healthcare
concerns of the day. Latest body of evidence implicates the environment as a critical element
in transmitting the resistant bacteria and for the surfacing of pathogens demonstrating
antibiotic resistance (Singer et al., 2016). Moreover, a concrete appreciation of the process of
evolution and ecological factors, which contribute to emergence of resistant genes in such
microbes, is not present yet and the same holds true for the dispersal barriers of the
environment. These research gaps, therefore, call for more lucid explanations of the
development and evolution of resistant genes, also regarding their mobilisation, transfer, and
dissemination in the environment.
Antimicrobial resistance is responsible for a large proportion of mortality on annual basis.
Research has suggested a projection in its increase in the coming years, which has led the
World Health Organization (WHO) to make a recognition regarding its threats as a public
health hazard (Prestinaci, Pezzotti and Pantosti, 2015). As far as the history of the recognition
of the danger and endeavours against antimicrobial resistance are concerned, mitigation
activities to curb the development of antimicrobial resistance have primarily been initiated in
the clinical settings and at community level. Very recently, the struggle has also commenced
in the environmental and agricultural context (Aslam et al., 2018). The aim of this struggle is
reduction of the transmission and prevention in selecting the resistant bacteria whilst
undertaking antibiotic therapies.
WHO has issued the warning that the contemporary world is fast heading to the post
antibiotic times, wherein a lot of trivial infections shall stand cureless, leading to
uncontrollable morbidity and mortality (Ventola, 2015). Furthermore, the hospitals and
healthcare facilities are fast turning into the hubs of extremely drug-resistant microorganisms,
bacteria, and other pathogens (Zaman et al., 2017). This shall not only be hazardous per se
but shall also make the routine surgical procedures and interventions like cancer surgery and
other surgical operation extremely risky due to the chances of propagating drug-resistant

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infections. A scientific report forecasts that by the middle of the twenty-first century, if there
is no betterment in the current antibiotic resistance development scenario, the population
figures of the world shall be from 11 million to 440 million lesser than it is projected to be
under the current circumstances. Similarly, the world’s economic losses will make the
economy shrink by anywhere ranging from 0.06 per cent to 3.1 per cent (Taylor et al., 2014).
Antimicrobial resistance is normally linked to substantial mortality, morbidity, extended
hospital stays, and higher financial implications. Such financial burden linked to pathogens
showing drug resistance can be due to tendency to administer pricey antibiotic treatments,
extended stays in hospitals, and greater mortality rates.
In the last couple of years, the involvement of environmental factors being contributory to
sourcing and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance has gained considerable recognition.
However, the appreciation of the exact nature of how environment plays its contributory role
in propagation of antimicrobial resistance is still lacking. The insufficiency of such a
knowledge base regarding how, why, and when the environmental factors become
contributory to the development of resistance make antimicrobial resistance risk reduction
quite a cumbersome task. Various studies have shed light on the dire need for adoption of
alternate approaches to control antibiotic resistance (Gaur, 2017). One example is the holistic
approach to curb antimicrobial resistance, which includes the human beings, other living
organisms, and the external environment, which can also be labelled as a one health
approach.
Increasing knowledge base of the factors in the environment, which cause antimicrobial
resistance to emerge, can finally enable the stakeholders in building novel models regarding
the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and is dissemination pattern, for a better control
aimed at reducing its severity. Nevertheless, these novel models are supposed to be of a
descriptive nature initially, as much of the parameters they comprise of are not known yet.
Therefore, such models are thought of as lacking a considerable predictive power. However,
they would hold significant value being the indicators of the most sought research knowledge
gaps to be filled with the intent of developing an appropriate mitigation strategy against
antimicrobial resistance.

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Investigation of Environmental and Pathologic-Resistant Bacteria Polluting Kuwaiti Dust Introduction In the contemporary medical arena, antibiotic resistance and its effects are greatest healthcare concerns of the day. Latest body of evidence implicates the environment as a critical element in transmitting the resistant bacteria and for the surfacing of pathogens demonstrating antibiotic resistance (Singer et al., 2016). Moreover, a concrete appreciation of the process of evolution and ecological factors, which contribute to emergence of resistant genes in such microbes, is not present yet and the same holds true for the dispersal barriers of the environment. These research gaps, therefore, call for more lucid explanations of the development and evolution of resistant genes, also regarding their mobilisation, transfer, and dissemination in the environment. Antimicrobial resistance is responsible for a large proportion of mortality on annual basis. Research has suggested a projection in its increase in the coming years, which has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to make a recognition regarding its threats as a public health hazard (Prestinaci, Pezzotti and Pantosti, 2015). A ...
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