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1 Factors Contributing Towards Autism among Children Visiting the Children Hospital and the Institute of Child Health Lahore: A Case Control Study First draft Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Roll No. 652-17 MPH Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Institute of Public Health Lahore Roll No. 652-17 2 INTRODUCTION Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Institute of Public Health Lahore Roll No. 652-17 3 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a behavioral profile present in early childhood. ASD is defined by deficits in communication and socialization, as well as the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Social deficits include diminished nonverbal communication (e.g., eye contact, gestures, pointing), and a failure to share experiences with others, both of which result in an inability to form reciprocal relationships. Young children with an ASD demonstrate an inability to engage in joint attention, a lack of spontaneous imitation, limited reciprocal and imaginative play, and difficulty understanding social cues such as facial expressions. Deficits in social interaction are intrinsically related to difficulties with communication. Many children with ASD experience a delay in language acquisition, and some never acquire verbal communication. Other individuals will develop structural aspects of language typically, yet still demonstrate deficits in pragmatics, or the social use of language. Individuals with ASD demonstrate repetitive behaviors, and/or restri ...
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