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Q.1 How does osteoarthritis present clinically? What are the major join findings on X ray?
Ans. Patients of osteoarthritis present with a history of joint pain, which is exacerbated by
increased use of the joints. An involvement of the weight bearing joints is quite common. On
examination, the following findings may be noted:
1. Crepitus in the affected joints
2. Limitation of range of movement of the joint
3. Heberden nodes, in case distal interphalyngel joints of the hands are involved.
X ray findings include:
1. Narrowing of the joint spaces
2. Sclerosis of the joints margins
3. Osteophyte formation
Q.2. What is wrist drop? Which muscles are involved?
Ans. Wrist drop is a clinical condition produced by the paralysis of the radial nerve in which the
wrist cannot be extended and lies in a hanging position.
Radial nerve gives motor supply the triceps, brachialis, anconeus, brachioradialis, abductor
pollicis longus and forearm extensor muscles and they are affected by the radial nerve palsy.
Q.3. What is septic arthritis? How is it treated?
Ans. Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to their infection with a pathogen. The
bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses can infect joints either through the blood, as a part of sepsis
or directly through a trauma to the affected joint.
It can result in a septic shock and therefore can be fatal in case septic shock is ensued.
Antibiotics are the main stray of treatment of septic arthritis. First of all, the infected synovial
fluid should be drained as early as possible. Then the patient should be administered antibiotics.
Thirdly, joint should be immobilized for pain control.
Q.4. Differentiate between Innate immunity and Adaptive immunity
Ans. Innate immunity comprised those general defense responses that come into action as soon as
an antigen enters the body or within some hours of its entry. This includes outside barriers such as
the skin tissue itself, factors in the blood, and cells of the immune system which come into action
against intruding cells in the body.
On the other hand, adaptive immunity is the antigen-specific immune response of the body. The
adaptive immunity is more specific and complicated than the innate immunity. The antigen first
must recognized by the body to derive a specific response. Once the antigen is recognized, the
adaptive immunity produced specific immune cells to combat the antigen.
Q.5 What is meant by SIADH. List its causes.
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Ans. SIADH means Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Causes of SIADH are
1 Central nervous system disorders resulting in stimulation of the hypothalamus, which secretes
ADH
2 Cancers at other sites that secrete ADH
3 Pulmonary causes
4 Drugs stimulating the hypothalamus
5 Genetic factors due to Inherited mutations

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Q.1 How does osteoarthritis present clinically? What are the major join findings on X ray? Ans. Patients of osteoarthritis present with a history of joint pain, which is exacerbated by increased use of the joints. An involvement of the weight bearing joints is quite common. On examination, the following findings may be noted: 1. Crepitus in the affected joints 2. Limitation of range of movement of the joint 3. Heberden nodes, in case distal interphalyngel joints of the hands are involved. X ray findings include: 1. Narrowing of the joint spaces 2. Sclerosis of the joints margins 3. Osteophyte formation Q.2. What is wrist drop? Which muscles are involved? Ans. Wrist drop is a clinical condition produced by the paralysis of the radial nerve in which the wrist cannot be extended and lies in a hanging position. Radial nerve gives motor supply the triceps, brachialis, anconeus, brachioradialis, abductor pollicis longus and forearm extensor muscles and they are affected by the radial nerve palsy. Q.3. What is septic arthritis? How is it treated? Ans. Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to their infection with a pathogen. The bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses can infect joints either through the blood, as a part of sepsis or directly through a trauma to the affected joint. It can result in a septic shock and therefore can be fatal in case septic shock is ensued. Antibiotics are the main stray of treatment of septic arthritis. First of all, the infected synovial fluid should be drained as early as possible. Then the patient should be administered antibiotics. Thirdly, joint should be immobilized for pain control. Q.4. Differentiate between Innate immunity and Adaptive immunity Ans. Innate immunity comprised those general defense responses that come into action as soon as an antigen enters the body or within some hours of its entry. This includes outside barriers such as the skin tissue itself, factors in the blood, and cells of the immune system which come into action against intruding cells in the body. On the other hand, adaptive immunity is the antigen-specific immune response of the body. The adaptive immunity is more specific and complicated than the innate immunity. The antigen first must recognized by the body to derive a specific response. Once the antigen is recognized, the adaptive immunity produced specific immune cells to combat the antigen. Q.5 What is meant by SIADH. List its causes. Ans. SIADH means Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Causes of SIADH are 1 Central nervous system disorders resulting in stimulation of the hypothalamus, which secretes ADH 2 Cancers at other sites that secrete ADH 3 Pulmonary causes 4 Drugs stimulating the hypothalamus 5 Genetic factors due to Inherited mutations Name: Description: ...
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