Access over 20 million homework & study documents

search

REVISED Neural Tube 22 10 2018

Content type
User Generated
Rating
Showing Page:
1/30
Neural Tube Defects
Dr. Nasreen Feroze/ Roll No. 701/2018 P a g e | 2 [Type here]
INTRODUCTION
Neural tube defects are congenital abnormalities of CNs that develop because of mal
union of neural folds completely. It has an incidence of 300000/year over worldwide.In
Pakistan it has an incidence of13.9/1000,a study done by Phushpa
Gowswami,Samreen Memon,Vashdev Khimani,Farhana published on 3/7/2015.1707-
1711.
No exact data is available but in Pakistan it has a prevalence rate of 4.5/1000 total
births studied by Ibrahim zaganjor.Ahila sekkarie,Beckle L,T Sang,Jennifer JoZaseph
Mulinare.Hilda Razaq published on April 11,2016https//doi.org10.1371.
There are 2 types of defects.
Open and Closed.
Open neural tube defects are most common. Open NTD occur when brain or spinal
cord is exposed at birth through a hole in the skull or vertebrae.
In open category included are anencephaly, encephalocele, hydrocephaly,
schizocephaly, spina bifida Rare varieties are closed defects which occur when spinal
defect is covered by skin. These include,meningocele, myeilomeningocle and tethered
cord.
There are multiple causative agents of these defects. There are genetics reasons plus
environmental. There are deficient studies on genetics but multiple nutritional factors
came out on front lines as their supply to pregnant ladies prevented the defects.
Numerous Genetic functioning abnormality, regularity of membrane morphology is

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
2/30
Neural Tube Defects
Dr. Nasreen Feroze/ Roll No. 701/2018 P a g e | 3 [Type here]
essential for normal closing.
Multifactorial Threshold Model is applied in development of NTD since single genetic
aberration is insufficient to cause defect. There is interaction of genes to genes and
genes to environment to cause the defect.Genetic defects in planar cell polarity by
Diana M,Juriloff,Murial J,Harris on 28/9/12https.23079 contribute to the NTDS..
EMBRYOLOGY
Formation of Neutral tubes involves the bending of neuroepithelium at midline to
generate neural folds.A Study done by Nicholas DE Greene and Andrew J
Copp,Nickolopolow E,Glea GL,Rolo A,published in annual review of neurosciences on
2014;37;221-42. These neural folds elevate and fuse in the midline in a process
called (Primary Neurulation). If incomplete closure neural tube is exposed to
environment and undergoes degeneration so that neuronal deficit develops. The
severity of defects depends on which axis is deficient. If fusion of brain affected, then
defect like anencepaly develops and if spinal cord affected then spinal bifida like
abnormalities come out. NTD can be due to either failure of initiating events or
disturbance of closing events at these sites. This process of primary Neuralation take
place at 18 days after fertilization when mostly women do not know that they are
pregnant + process complete till 28 days after fertilization.
Secondary Neurulation

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
3/30

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
End of Preview - Want to read all 30 pages?
Access Now
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Neural Tube Defects INTRODUCTION Neural tube defects are congenital abnormalities of CNs that develop because of mal union of neural folds completely. It has an incidence of 300000/year over worldwide.In Pakistan it has an incidence of13.9/1000,a study done by Phushpa Gowswami,Samreen Memon,Vashdev Khimani,Farhana published on 3/7/2015.17071711. No exact data is available but in Pakistan it has a prevalence rate of 4.5/1000 total births studied by Ibrahim zaganjor.Ahila sekkarie,Beckle L,T Sang,Jennifer JoZaseph Mulinare.Hilda Razaq published on April 11,2016https//doi.org10.1371. There are 2 types of defects. Open and Closed. Open neural tube defects are most common. Open NTD occur when brain or spinal cord is exposed at birth through a hole in the skull or vertebrae. In open category included are anencephaly, encephalocele, hydrocephaly, schizocephaly, spina bifida Rare varieties are closed defects which occur when spinal defect is covered by skin. These include,meningocele, myeilomeningocle and tethered cord. There are multiple causative agents of these defects. There are genetics reasons plus environmental. There are deficient studies on genetics but multiple nutritional factors came out on front lines as their supply to pregnant ladies prevented the defects. Numerous Genetic functioning abnormality, regularity of membrane morphology is Dr. Nasreen Feroze/ Roll No. 701/2018 Page |2 [Type here] Neural Tube Defects essential for normal closing. Multifactori ...
Purchase document to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Anonymous
Just what I needed…Fantastic!

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Similar Documents