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Factors Contributing Towards Autism Among Children Visiting The Children Hospital And
The Institute Of Child Health Lahore: A Case Control Study
Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Roll No. 652-17 MPH 1
Institute of Public Health Lahore
Summary
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is characterized by impaired
social interaction, communication and restricted, repetitive behavior. The children
affected are perfectly normal in appearance but they spend their time engaged in
puzzling and disturbing behaviors which are different from normal children. Its onset
is from 0-3 years.
Previous studies conducted in the world and Pakistan the emphasis has been given
on finding out different risk factors and their association with autism like genetic,
prenatal, social, developmental, nutritional and environmental factors which play
major roles.
Present study is being conducted because autism is a significant
neurodevelopmental disorder which greatly impairs the functioning of the brain and
thus greatly affecting the day to day life of children.In Pakistan autism is quite
prevalent. In Pakistan little research is done on autism.Therefore it is necessary to
conduct a study regarding risk factors affecting autism among children visiting
children hospital Lahore.
This is a case control study with a sample size of 170 among which 85 are cases
and 85 are controls. A questionnaire will be used to collect data on variables of
interest and will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Verbal consent will be
taken from the attendants of the patients.

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Factors Contributing Towards Autism Among Children Visiting The Children Hospital And
The Institute Of Child Health Lahore: A Case Control Study
Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Roll No. 652-17 MPH 2
Institute of Public Health Lahore
Introduction
According to DSM V persistent deficit in social communication and social
interaction across multiple contacts as deficit in social, emotional reciprocity, deficiy
in non verbal communicating behavior and deficit in developing, maintaining and
understanding relationships are considered to be significant for diagnosis of ASDs.
Autism described by Asperger in 1938 and Kanner in 1943 is a severe
neurodevelopmental disorder and belongs to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
ASD disorder includes autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, unidentified
pervasive developmental disorders, and childhood disintegrative disorder.
[1]
Its onset
is from birth to 3 years.
[2]
Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction,
communication, and by restricted, repetitive behavior. The children affected are
perfectly normal in appearance, but they spend their time engaged in puzzling and
disturbing behaviors which are markedly different from those of normal children.
[3]
It
is also believed to be associated with other psychiatric co-morbidities like anxiety,
depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavioral
problems.
[4]
Autism was previously reported to affect approximately 5 out of every 10,000
children, but prevalence rates of both autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
may have increased markedly in the past decade.
[5]
Current population prevalence of
ASD is estimated at about 1.5% in developed countries around the world.
[6]
Studies
showed rates of 26.4 (per 1,000) in South Korea, 11.6 in United Kingdom, 11.3 in the
United States, 6.9 in Denmark, 5.1 in Australia, 2.9 in Taiwan, 0.1 in Oman and 0.6
in Iran
[7]
while 181 (per 10,000) in Japan and 10.3 per 10,000 in China. More than 10
million children are affected by ASD in India.
[8]
Rates of autism in boys are three to
four times higher than in girls but when females have autism; they tend to be more

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Factors Contributing Towards Autism Among Children Visiting The Children Hospital And The Institute Of Child Health Lahore: A Case Control Study Summary Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and restricted, repetitive behavior. The children affected are perfectly normal in appearance but they spend their time engaged in puzzling and disturbing behaviors which are different from normal children. Its onset is from 0-3 years. Previous studies conducted in the world and Pakistan the emphasis has been given on finding out different risk factors and their association with autism like genetic, prenatal, social, developmental, nutritional and environmental factors which play major roles. Present study is being conducted because autism is a significant neurodevelopmental disorder which greatly impairs the functioning of the brain and thus greatly affecting the day to day life of children.In Pakistan autism is quite prevalent. In Pakistan little research is done on autism.Therefore it is necessary to conduct a study regarding risk factors affecting autism among children visiting children hospital Lahore. This is a case control study with a sample size of 170 among which 85 are cases and 85 are controls. A questionnaire will be used to collect data on variables of interest and will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Verbal consent will be taken from the attendants of the patients. Dr. Sajid Ali Kha ...
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