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Corrected HNHS 112 Physiological Principles for heath and social care Nov 27

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Task 1
Basic explanation of the systems
The skeletal system is a system of tissues and organs which is designed to give the
form and structure to the human body and provides a framework to support various
organs of the body and to protect them (Clarke, 2008). It comprises the bones and
joints present in the body. The muscular system is built upon the skeletal system in the
form of muscles, tendons and ligaments and it ensures the mobility of various parts of
the body. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart which is the pump of the
body which circulates blood all across the body through a network of vessels
discussed later on (Clarke, 2008).
Gross anatomy and functions of the systems
Figure 1: Gross anatomy of the musculo skeletal system (Anatomy-Medicine.
Skeletal system
The skeletal system comprises of 206 bones (Umadevi Geethalakshmi, 2011). These
bones are joined together through various kinds of joints which are structures which
hold together two individual bones yet allowing for their movement against each other

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The first component of the skeletal system is the axial skeleton. The axial skeleton as
its name implies is the central framework of bones from the head to the torso. Moving
down from the head downward, the parts of axial skeleton are the skull or cranium,
which is the combined name for twenty two bones joined together to form a cage in
which the human brain is housed. Twenty one out of the twenty two bones comprising
the skull are fused together while one bone makes a movable joint with rest of the
bones. This bone is called the mandible or the jaw and its movement allows the action
of chewing.
Next in the axial skeleton is the hyoid bone. It is located below the