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Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Roll No. 652-17 MPH 1
Institute of Public Health, Lahore
The neurological spectrum of diseases Autism spectrum disorders which is an
umbrella term abbreviated as ASD is a group of ailments signified as
behavioral patterns characterized primarily in the initial childhood. ASD is
signified by defects in interaction and sociability, along with the occurrence of
diminished interests and peculiar compulsive, repetition behaviors.
Sociological defects comprise reduced non-verbal interaction as for example
eye-contact, gesture formation and pointing. Also an inability to share their
experiences with peers is there. Both of these cause an inability to create
reciprocating relationships with others.
1
.
Male children are implicated in ASD in a greater frequency than female
children with an approximate male: female being 4:1. The spectrum of ASD
comprises different conditions, encompassing Autism being graded as a
pervasive developmental disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders which is abbreviated as DSM in its Fourth Edition Revised
abbreviated as DSM-IV-TR. ASD is normally brought to diagnosis in primary
childhood and persists as a life-long disability. It is presently approximated
that as much as one in eighty eight young ones in the US have a form of ASD
in them
1
. This incidence and prevalence has enhanced gradually in the past
few decades. Keeping in mind that there has been an incremental trend in the
diagnosis of ASD, it is unknown whether this is because of an absolute
increase in incidence. Medical expenses are 3 to 10 times higher for a child
having ASD than a normally developing child. A disease which normally co-

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Factors Contributing towards Autism Among Children Visiting The Children Hospital and The
Institute of Child Health Lahore: A Case Control Study
Dr. Sajid Ali Khan Roll No. 652-17 MPH
Institute of Public Health Lahore 2
exists with ASD is termed as Intellectual Disability abbreviated as ID. ID is
characterized in the DSM-IV as Intelligence Quotient at par with or less than
seventy and a derangement of the adaptive functioning. ID is marked by a
cognitive and social-interaction deficit, and is usually characterized by
stereotypes and challenged attitudes and behaviors. Traditionally, ASD was
believed to have an association with ID. The long-held opinion was that up to
seventy five per cent of the children having ASD had concomitant ID. The
current epidemiological enquiries have depicted ratios of ID in ASD near to
forty to fifty per cent
2
. As the prevalence of the A.S.Ds have enhanced, there
is especially huge increase demonstrated by the children having ASD in the
absence of ID
2
. Most of the decrease in the proportion of children having
ASD along with ID over the passage of time is mostly as a consequence of
the revision and expansion of the diagnostic criteria. Epilepsy which is a
neurologic disorder marked by re-current and spontaneous seizures, is
another morbidity that mostly co-exists with the ASD. Epilepsy cases are
mostly seen to be there in thirty per cent of children having ASD, which mostly
surpasses the ratio of nearly one per cent in the whole population
3
.
Little children having ASDs demonstrate an in-ability to take part among the
collective behaviors, a deficit in sudden copying, not much reciprocating along
with creative roles & problems assimilating the social cues like face-
expressions. Deficiencies in their societal interactions are primarily linked to

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The neurological spectrum of diseases Autism spectrum disorders which is an umbrella term abbreviated as ASD is a group of ailments signified as behavioral patterns characterized primarily in the initial childhood. ASD is signified by defects in interaction and sociability, along with the occurrence of diminished interests and peculiar compulsive, repetition behaviors. Sociological defects comprise reduced non-verbal interaction as for example eye-contact, gesture formation and pointing. Also an inability to share their experiences with peers is there. Both of these cause an inability to create reciprocating relationships with others. 1. Male children are implicated in ASD in a greater frequency than female children with an approximate male: female being 4:1. The spectrum of ASD comprises different conditions, encompassing Autism being graded as a pervasive developmental disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which is abbreviated as DSM in its Fourth Edition Revised abbreviated as DSM-IV-TR. ASD is normally brought to diagnosis in primary childhood and persists as a life-long disability. It is presently approximated that as much as one in eighty eight young ones in the US have a form of ASD in them 1. This incidence and prevalence has enhanced gradually in the past few decades. Keeping in mind that there has been an incremental trend in the diagnosis of ASD, it is unknown whether this is because of an absolute increase in incidence. Medical e ...
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