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Dr Allah Rakha Roll No.653-17 MPH 1
Institute of Public Health, Lahore
Epilepsy, a seizure disorder is one of the commonly occurring neurological
disorders that affect people of all nations, all ages and all races.
1
Epilepsy is the one of the widespread and dreadful neurological diseases and
additionally it is one of the world's most prevalent non-communicable
diseases. Epilepsy is a disease of the nervous system marked by the
occurrence of seizures on a re-current basis, which are described as
spontaneous surges in the electrical impulses of the brain an unpredictable
electrical activity. Epilepsy is characterized by evolving spontaneously,
because it has extremely alterable nature and gives rise to a lot of
psychological implications.
2
Epilepsy is also classified as a “seizure disorder”. Seizures are the periods of
hyperactivity in which neurons act more rapidly than normal. Children are
more vulnerable to epilepsy.
3
Epilepsy has adverse implications not only for the patient’s but also of the
patient’s family’s life and well-being. Many are prone to trauma and an
increased predisposition to early fatality and also included the risk of
spontaneous un-predicted fatality linked to epilepsy.
4
The clinical hallmark of epilepsy is the incidence of episodes termed as
seizures which are the classic clinical manifestations; signs and symptoms as
a result of abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal brain activity.
Epilepsy can be diagnosed if at least 2 reflex seizures happen in excess of

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Dr. Allah Rakha Roll No. 653-17 MPH
Institute of Public Health, Lahore
2
twenty four hours apart from each other, in the instance of one reflex epilepsy
episode having an enhanced chance of relapse or in instance of a discovery
of an epileptic syndrome.
5
Most epileptic seizures occur spontaneously, or they may be triggered by
factor such as fatigue, fever or stress. In occasional epilepsy types, seizures
may be reflexively provoked by a specific recognizable precipitant such as
flashing light, a sudden noise, alcohol, hot water, or cognitive activity
(speaking, reading, and counting). Epilepsy can result from various underlying
brain disorders. Genetics is involved in a substantial part of cases of epilepsy,
either as the direct underlying cause or by modulating the susceptibility to an
epileptogenic trigger.
6
The causal contribution of genetics may either be directly, due to rare single
gene defects, or indirectly due to the interaction of multiple genes and
external factors. Structural pathology of the brain due to stroke, tumor,
trauma, infection, cortical malformation, gliosis or sclerosis (scarring of brain
tissue), is also frequently associated with epilepsy. These lesions may induce
functional changes in specific brain areas resulting in the occurrence of
seizures. In addition, metabolic abnormalities and specific syndromes (e.g.
West’s or Lennox-Gestaut’s) have been described in the etiology of epilepsy.
In many cases, however, the underlying cause of epilepsy is unknown or
poorly known, with most probably a presumed genetic, microstructural or
immunological basis.
7

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Epilepsy, a seizure disorder is one of the commonly occurring neurological disorders that affect people of all nations, all ages and all races.1 Epilepsy is the one of the widespread and dreadful neurological diseases and additionally it is one of the world's most prevalent non-communicable diseases. Epilepsy is a disease of the nervous system marked by the occurrence of seizures on a re-current basis, which are described as spontaneous surges in the electrical impulses of the brain an unpredictable electrical activity. Epilepsy is characterized by evolving spontaneously, because it has extremely alterable nature and gives rise to a lot of psychological implications.2 Epilepsy is also classified as a “seizure disorder”. Seizures are the periods of hyperactivity in which neurons act more rapidly than normal. Children are more vulnerable to epilepsy.3 Epilepsy has adverse implications not only for the patient’s but also of the patient’s family’s life and well-being. Many are prone to trauma and an increased predisposition to early fatality and also included the risk of spontaneous un-predicted fatality linked to epilepsy.4 The clinical hallmark of epilepsy is the incidence of episodes termed as seizures which are the classic clinical manifestations; signs and symptoms as a result of abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal brain activity. Epilepsy can be diagnosed if at least 2 reflex seizures happen in excess of Dr Allah Rakha Roll No.653-17 Institute of Public Hea ...
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