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Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients
Muhammad Paracha
MCPHS University
Culminating Experience O2

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CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN DIABETIC PATIENTS
1
Background
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that represents one of the greatest
lifetime risk factors for the development of macrovascular and microvascular diseases (Wright et
al., 2020, p. 1926). Cardiovascular disease is recognized as the most prevalent cause of mortality
and morbidity in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
According to the recent estimations, the average reduction in life expectancy in diabetic
populations is 4 to 8 years compared with non-diabetic individuals (Bertoluci & Rocha, 2017, p.
1).
Although the link between diabetes and the development of cardiovascular diseases is
generally recognized, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. Atherosclerosis is
the principal reason behind the increased risk of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and
associated mortality in patients with T1DM and T2DM. Kovarnik et al. reported that diabetic
individuals have a smaller diameter of coronary artery lumen, higher atheroma volume, and more
significant atherosclerotic plaque burden than non-diabetic ones (Kovarnik et al., 2017, p. 7). In
addition, silent myocardial ischemia is relatively common in diabetic patients, which is
asymptomatic in almost 30% of cases (Piché & Poirier, 2018, p. 6). Independent of coronary
artery disease, diabetes mellitus is an important predictor of heart failure. The largest cohort
study of about 1.9 million individuals with type 2 diabetes found that this pathophysiological
state is the second most common manifestation of cardiovascular diseases (Shah et al., 2015, p.
105). Ischemic cardiomyopathy and hypertension are the main comorbid conditions in diabetes
that contribute to the development of heart failure (Chong et al., 2017, p. 422).

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Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients Muhammad Paracha MCPHS University Culminating Experience – O2 CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN DIABETIC PATIENTS 1 Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that represents one of the greatest lifetime risk factors for the development of macrovascular and microvascular diseases (Wright et al., 2020, p. 1926). Cardiovascular disease is recognized as the most prevalent cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). According to the recent estimations, the average reduction in life expectancy in diabetic populations is 4 to 8 years compared with non-diabetic individuals (Bertoluci & Rocha, 2017, p. 1). Although the link between diabetes and the development of cardiovascular diseases is generally recognized, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. Atherosclerosis is the principal reason behind the increased risk of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and associated mortality in patients with T1DM and T2DM. Kovarnik et al. reported that diabetic individuals have a smaller diameter of coronary artery lumen, higher atheroma volume, and more significant atherosclerotic plaque burden than non-diabetic ones (Kovarnik et al., 2017, p. 7). In addition, silent myocardial ischemia is relatively common in diabetic patients, which is asymptomatic in almost 30% of cases (Piché & Poirier, 2018, p. 6). Independent of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus ...
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