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Multi-Level marketing class lectures_7311903-Processes-and-patterns-in-transitions-and-system-innovations-Refining-the-co-evo...

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Technological Forecasting & Social Change 72 (2005) 681 – 696 Processes and patterns in transitions and system innovations: Refining the co-evolutionary multi-level perspective F.W. GeelsT Technical University Eindhoven, IPO 2.10, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands Received 15 March 2004; accepted 13 August 2004 Abstract This article investigates transitions at the level of societal functions (e.g., transport, communication, housing). Societal functions are fulfilled by sociotechnical systems, which consist of a cluster of aligned elements, e.g., artifacts, knowledge, markets, regulation, cultural meaning, infrastructure, maintenance networks and supply networks. Transitions are conceptualised as system innovations, i.e., a change from one sociotechnical system to another. The article describes a co-evolutionary multi-level perspective to understand how system innovations come about through the interplay between technology and society. The article makes a new step as it further refines the multi-level perspective by distinguishing characteristic patterns: (a) two transition routes, (b) fit–stretch pattern, and (c) patterns in breakthrough. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Transition; System innovation; Co-evolution; Multi-level perspective; Patterns 1. Introduction This paper deals with transitions at the level of societal functions such as transportation, communication, housing, energy supply, feeding. Societal functions are fulfilled by sociotechni ...
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