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2 Cardiovascular System Part II

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Cardiovascular Part II HOW THE HEART WORKS Cardiac Cycle: Elements to Consider ECG: Action potentials ◦ P-wave ◦ P-Q Interval ◦ QRS Complex ◦ T-wave Pressure Changes through the heart Heart Sounds Volume in Ventricles Phases of the Cardiac Cycle Diastole vs Systole Systole occurs when the heart contracts to pump blood out Diastole occurs when the heart relaxes after contraction. Cardiac Cycle - Vocabulary End diastolic volume (EDV) ◦ volume in ventricle at end of diastole (contraction) End systolic volume (ESV) ◦ volume in ventricle at end of systole (relaxation) Stroke volume (SV) ◦ the volume ejected per beat from each ventricle SV = EDV - ESV Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 4 Phases of Cardiac Cycle Isovolumetric relaxation ◦ brief period when volume in ventricles does not change--as ventricles relax (diastole), pressure drops and AV valves open Ventricular filling ◦ rapid ventricular filling ◦ atrial systole pushes final 20-25 ml blood into ventricle Ventricular systole ◦ ventricular systole ◦ isovolumetric contraction ◦ brief period, AV valves close before SL valves open ◦ ventricular ejection: as SL valves open and blood is ejected PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 5 Atrial systole/ventricular diastole Atrial Systole: atria contract, increasing pressure forces the AV valves to open. ◦ The amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole is the End Diastolic Volume (EDV) Ventricular ...
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