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4 Vascular Physiology Part II 4

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Hemodynamics THE PHYSICS OF BLOOD FLOW Overview of Cardiovascular Pressures Factors involved in cardiovascular pressures include ◦ Vessel diameter ◦ Cross-sectional area of vessels ◦ Blood volume ◦ Blood viscosity These factors are the “Resistance” to blood flow Resistance (R) Resistance of the cardiovascular system opposes the movement of blood For blood to flow, the pressure gradient must overcome total peripheral resistance ◦ Peripheral resistance (PR) is the resistance of the arterial system Either through the whole system or through a particular capillary bed; the two main variables are: ◦ The difference in pressure, ie. How strong the push is, & ◦ The resistance to flow How do these things relate to flow? Greater pressure difference means greater flow  they are directly proportional Greater resistance means less flow  indirectly proportional Resistance Factors: Between blood and Vessel Walls: ◦ Average blood vessel radius ◦ smaller vessels offer more resistance to blood flow ◦ cause moment to moment fluctuations in pressure ◦ Total vessel length ◦ The longer the vessel, the greater the resistance ◦ 200 miles of blood vessels for every pound of fat ◦ obesity & high blood pressure ◦ Blood viscosity ◦ Ratio of red blood cells to plasma volume ◦ Dehydration or Polycythemia Systemic vascular resistance is the total of above PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 4 Diameter, Cross-sectional Area, Blood Press ...
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