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9 Specific Immunity 2

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Immune System SPECIFIC RESISTANCE SPECIFIC RESISTANCE: IMMUNITY Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents. ◦ bacteria, toxins, viruses, cat dander, etc. Differs from nonspecific defense mechanisms ◦ specificity----recognize self & non-self ◦ memory----2nd encounter produces even more vigorous response Antigens are substances recognized as foreign by the immune responses. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 2 Types of Immune Response Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) refers to destruction of antigens by T cells. ◦ particularly effective against intracellular pathogens, such as fungi, parasites, and viruses; some cancer cells; and foreign tissue transplants. ◦ CMI always involves cells attacking cells. Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity (AMI) refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. ◦ works mainly against antigens dissolved in body fluids and extracellular pathogens, primarily bacteria, that multiply in body fluids but rarely enter body cells. Often a pathogen provokes both types of immune response. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 3 Antigens Molecules or bits of foreign material ◦ Entire microbes, parts of microbes, bacterial toxins, pollen, transplanted organs, incompatible blood cells Required characteristics to be considered an antigen ◦ Immunogenicity = ability to provoke immune response ◦ Reactivity = ability to react to cells or antibodies it caused to be formed ...
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