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1 Cardiovascular System Part I

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Cardiovascular Part:1 HOW FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION Figure 20.1 Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle fibers are single nucleated and branching. Fibers within the networks are connected by intercalated discs, which consist of desmosomes and gap junctions Self-excitatory and electrically coupled Rate of contractions modulated by autonomic nervous system ◦ innervation is neuroendocrine in nature (i.e. no “motor end plates”) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Features of Cardiac Muscle Intercalated disks Junctional complexes joining cells together, with longitudinal and transverse portions Gap Junctions Provide ionic continuity so that when one fiber contracts, the next will automatically contract as a syncytium. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Histology of Cardiac Muscle Cells Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 20.5a-c Autorhythmic Cells: Cardiac muscle cells are autorhythmic cells because they are self-excitable. They repeatedly generate spontaneous action potentials that then trigger heart contractions. These cells act as a pacemaker to set the rhythm for the entire heart. They form the conduction system, the route for propagating action potential through the heart muscle. 5 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiac Action Potential An impulse in a v ...
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