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3 Vascular Physiology Part I 2

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Vessel Structure ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS Features of Arteries Undergo changes in diameter ◦ Vasoconstriction – decreases the size of the lumen ◦ Vasodilation – increases the size of the lumen Classified as either elastic (conducting) or muscular (distribution) Small arteries (internal diameter of 30 um or less) are called arterioles Arteries The functional properties of arteries are elasticity and contractility. ◦ Elasticity, due to the elastic tissue in the tunica internal and media, allows arteries to accept blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles and to send it on through the system. ◦ Contractility, due to the smooth muscle in the tunica media, allows arteries to increase or decrease lumen size and to limit bleeding from wounds. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 3 Arterioles Structure of Arterioles ◦ tunica media containing few layers of muscle Metarterioles form branches into capillary bed ◦ Regulates blood flow through capillary bed. 5 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E Capillaries form Microcirculation Found near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue (muscles, liver, kidneys & brain) Exchange of nutrients & wastes between blood and tissue fluid Capillary walls are composed of only a single layer of cells (endothelium) and a basement membrane. ◦ Depending on the location and function – there are variation is cellular structure PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY ...
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