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8 Lymph Organs & Nonspecific Immunity

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Lymphatic Organs and Tissues FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 1 Lymphatic Organs & Tissues Widely distributed throughout the body Primary lymphatic organs ◦ Provide environment for stem cells to divide & mature into B and T lymphocytes Secondary lymphatic organs & tissues ◦ site where most immune responses occur ◦ lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 2 Lymph Node Structure Encapsulated organs, up to 1 inch long, located along lymphatic vessels Anatomy: ◦ Stroma ◦ Parenchyma is divided into 2 regions: ◦ Cortex ◦ Lymphatic nodules with germinal centers ◦ Medulla ◦ Contains B cells & plasma cells in medullary cords PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 3 Lymph Node Function Lymph Fluid enters nodes to remove damaged cells and microorganisms. ◦ Foreign substances filtered by the lymph nodes are trapped by nodal reticular fibers. ◦ Macrophages then destroy some foreign substances by phagocytosis and lymphocytes bring about the destruction of others by immune responses. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 4 Lymph Nodes Flow is in one direction ◦ afferent vessels lead in ◦ sinuses lead to efferent vessels that exit at hilus Only nodes filter lymph PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 11E 5 Metastasis Through Lymphatic System Knowledge of the location of the lymph nodes and the direction of lymph flow is important in the ...
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