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Citation 10 VISUAL SEARCH

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Your Name: 17
Citation 10 -- “Visual Search”
1. APA-style reference for the article
Treisman, A.M., & Gelade, G. (2000). A feature-integration theory of attention. Visual
Perception: Essential readings. (347-358.) Psychology Press
2. Goal of article: State the research questions and/or hypotheses being investigated
(What are they trying to do?) (Four sentences to one paragraph)
This visual search experiment supports the idea that feature searches are automatic and
conjunctive searches require attention from the viewer. Treisman’s (1986) feature
integration theory explained that single-feature searches are easy because they are
automatic and that attention is required when more features are added because these
items must be mentally constructed. The hypothesis of the experiment was that the items
would be easier to detect in a feature search than in a conjunctive search because,
according to Treisman’s theory, attention is needed for the latter task. Detecting a target
among distracters in the feature search is automaticattention is not necessary. Treisman
also stated that to detect a target among two or more distracters, attention is needed to
piece together all of the features. Experiment 1 attempts to explore the possibility that
extended practice on particular shape-color conjunction could lead to a change from
serial to parallel detection,
3. List three (3) cognitive psychology terms important for the topic of the article, find
their definitions or descriptions in any CogPsy textbook (give reference) and
provide them here:
1. Interference: Occurs when competing information causes an individual to forget
something.
2. Serial Processing: Means by which information is handled through a linear sequence of
operations, one operation at a time.
3. Spatial Cognition: Refers to the acquisition, organization, and use of knowledge about
objects and actions in two and three-dimensional space.
Sternberg, R. J. & Sternberg K. (2012) Cognitive Psychology Sixth Edition. Retrieved from
http://my.stust.edu.tw/sysdata/48/27948/doc/a9f9bcd34c971811/attach/1204223.pdf
[To answer Questions 4-7, use Experiment I]
4. Describe ALL the dependent variables for the designated experiment:
a. Provide an operational definition
b. Name the units it was measured in
Reaction Time
milliseconds
5. Describe ALL the independent variables for the designated experiment:
c. Name each variable
d. List its levels

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e. State the statistical test(s) that was/were used to analyze the data
f. If there are more than one independent variable, state the factorial design
Set Size, Conjunction v. Feature
(1,5,15,30), (Positive, Negative), (Color, Shape)
Linear Regression
2x2x4
6. Describe how the experiment was conducted, i.e., what was the procedure: (4-6
sentences)
6 Participants (4 men, 2 women) participated. The stimulus cards were presented in an
Electronics development three-field tachistoscope and RT was recorded. At the
beginning of each trial the participants viewed a plain white card. The experimenter gave
a verbal “Ready” signal and pressed a button to display a second white card. They were
asked to make a key press as quickly as possible if they detected a target with their
dominant hand and with their nondominant hand otherwise. Trials in which errors were
made were repeated later on in the session. Participants were told their reaction time and
whether or not they were correct after each trial; they were not informed of the dummy
trials. Each participant was tested on both conjunctions following an ABBAAB order.
Half the participants began with the feature targets and half with the conjunction targets.
Six participants did 3 blocks consisting of 128 trials each in each condition. Two of the
participants volunteered to continue for another 4 blocks in the conjunction condition and
two for another 10 blocks, making 13 altogether and a total of 1664 trials. Within each
block the presentation order of positive and negative trials and of different display sizes
was randomized. Each block contained 16 positive and 16 negative trials for each display
size. Participants were asked to search concurrently for two targets. A different single
feature defined each target: color (blue) and a shape (S). This forced them to attend to
both dimensions in the feature condition as well as in the conjunction condition. The
distracters were identical in both conditions. The distracters were scattered over the card
in positions, which appeared random, although no randomization was used. There were
four different display sizes (1,5,15, and 30 items) that were used in each condition.
7. Identify all the main effects and interactions (if the design is factorial). Make sure
you state the main effect for EACH independent variable you named in (5):
a. Provide the statistical statement (t- or F-statement)
b. Explain each statement in plain English
.043, 99% of the variance was due to display size. Search time increased linearly with
display size in the conjunction condition.
68% of the variance for feature targets was due to display size.
96% of variance for the negatives was due to display size. The ratio of positive to
negative slopes was 0.12.
2.2% of errors in the feature condition for false positives, 2.1% for false negatives
0.8% false positive in the conjunction condition and 4.9% false negatives
5.5% mean error rate for individual participant in conjunction condition and 3.5% in
feature condition,
8. Steps or conclusions suggested by the article (One paragraph):
a. How is each research question listed in (2) answered?

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Your Name: 17 Citation 10 -- “Visual Search” 1. APA-style reference for the article Treisman, A.M., & Gelade, G. (2000). A feature-integration theory of attention. Visual Perception: Essential readings. (347-358.) Psychology Press 2. Goal of article: State the research questions and/or hypotheses being investigated (What are they trying to do?) (Four sentences to one paragraph) This visual search experiment supports the idea that feature searches are automatic and conjunctive searches require attention from the viewer. Treisman’s (1986) feature integration theory explained that single-feature searches are easy because they are automatic and that attention is required when more features are added because these items must be mentally constructed. The hypothesis of the experiment was that the items would be easier to detect in a feature search than in a conjunctive search because, a ...
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