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The information below was taken from:
Rowitz, L. Public Health Leadership. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from
https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284055573/
HEALTHY PEQPLE 2020
The new Healthy People report demonstrates that infrastructure development is critical to all the health topic areas in the
report.
7
The key goals of the new report involve objectives related to health improvement, the development of environments
that promote good health, and teaching people ways to promote their good health and improve their health behaviors. The
job of the public health leader is to build infrastructure to provide a framework to address the social determinants of health.
The World Health Organization defined social determination of health as follows:
8
The complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems responsible for most health inequities. These social
structures and economic systems include the social environment, physical environment, health services, and structural and societal factors.
Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and
the world.
A concern about building public health infrastructure for the year 2020 has led to the development of several emerging
issues, including tribal public health infrastructure, public health workforce disparities, public health agency accreditation,
public health systems research, and public health law.
9
Exhibit 7-1 presents the recommended objectives related to public
health infrastructure in the Healthy People 2020 document.
10
These infrastructure objectives provide guidance to public
health leaders for some of their work and collaborative activities.
EXHIBIT 7-1 Healthy People 2020 Summary of Public Health Infrastructure Objectives
Public Health Infrastructure
Number
Objective Short Title
Workforce
PHI-1
Competencies for public health professionals
PHI-2
Continuing education of public health personnel
PHI-3
Integration of core competencies in public health into curricula
PHI-4
Public health majors and minors
PHI-5
Public health majors and minors consistent with core competencies
PHI-6
Associate degrees and certificate programs in public health
Data and Information Systems
PHI-7
National data for Healthy People 2020 objectives
PHI-8
National tracking of Healthy People 2020 objectives
PHI-9
Timely release of national data for Healthy People 2020 objectives
PHI-10
State vital event reporting
Public Health Organizations
PHI-11
Public health agencies laboratory services
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PHI-12
Public health laboratory systems performance of essential services
PHI-13
Epidemiology services
PHI-14
Public health system assessment
PHI-15
Health improvement plans
PHI-16
Public health agency quality improvement program
PHI-17
Accredited public health agencies
Topic Area: Public Health Infrastructure
Workforce
PHI-1: Increase the proportion of Federal, Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that
incorporate Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals into job descriptions and
performance evaluations.
PHI-1.1 (Developmental) Federal agencies.
Potential data source: Office of Personnel Management.
PHI-1.2 (Developmental) Tribal agencies.
Potential data source: Indian Health Service.
PHI-1.3 (Developmental) State public health agencies.
Potential data source: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and
Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO).
PHI-1.4 Local public health agencies.*
Target: 25 percent.
Baseline: 15 percent of local public health agencies incorporated Core Competencies for Public
Health Professionals into job descriptions in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percentage point improvement.
Data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and
City Health Officials (NACCHO). (*Data for local public health agencies include only data on
job descriptions.)
PHI-2: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health
personnel who receive continuing education consistent with Core Competencies for Public
Health Professionals.
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Potential data sources: Indian Health Service, the Public Health Foundation TRAIN database,
and HRSA’s Public Health Training Centers.
PHI-3: Increase the proportion of Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited
schools of public health, CEPH accredited academic programs, and schools of nursing (with a
public health or community health component) that integrate Core Competencies for Public
Health Professionals into curricula.
Target: 94 percent.
Baseline: 91 percent of Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited schools of
public health, CEPH accredited academic programs, and schools of nursing (with a public health
or community health component) integrated Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals
into curricula for public health professionals in 2006.
Target setting method: 3 percent improvement.
Data source: Council on Linkages Study, Council on Linkages Between Academic and Public
Health Practice.
PHI-4: Increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer public health or
related majors and/or minors.
PHI-4.1 Majors.
Target: 10 percent.
Baseline: 7 percent of 4-year colleges and universities offered public health or related majors in
2008.
Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: Catalog Scan of Undergraduate Public Health Programs, the Association of
American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U).
PHI-4.2 Minors.
Target: 15 percent.
Baseline: 11 percent of 4-year colleges and universities offered public health or related minors in
2008. Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: Catalog Scan of Undergraduate Public Health Programs, the Association of
American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U).
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PHI-5: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer
public health or related majors and/or minors which are consistent with the core competencies of
undergraduate public health education.
Potential data source: Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) in collaboration with the
American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U).
PHI-6: Increase the proportion of 2-year colleges that offer public health or related associate
degrees and/or certificate programs.
PHI-6.1 Associate degrees. Target: 3 percent.
Baseline: 2 percent of 2-year colleges offered public health or related associate degrees in 2009.
Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U); American
Association of Community Colleges (AACC).
PHI-6.2 Certificate programs. Target: 1 percent.
Baseline: 0 percent of 2-year colleges offered public health or related associate certificate
programs in 2009.
Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U); American
Association of Community Colleges (AACC).
Data and Information Systems
PHI-7: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of population-based Healthy People 2020
objectives for which national data are available for all major population groups.
Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-8: Increase the proportion of Healthy People 2020 objectives that are tracked regularly at
the national level.
PHI-8.1 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that originally did not have
baseline data but now have at least baseline data.
Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-8.2 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that have at least a baseline and
one additional data point.
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Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-8.3 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that are tracked at least every 3
years.
Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-9: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Healthy People 2020 objectives for which
national data are released within 1 year of the end of data collection.
Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-10: Increase the number of States that record vital events using the latest U.S. standard
certificates and report.
PHI-10.1 States using the standard certificate of birth.
Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City).
Baseline: 28 States used the 2003 U.S. standard birth certificate in 2008.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-10.2 States using the standard certificate of death.
Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City).
Baseline: 30 States used the 2003 U.S. standard death certificate in 2008.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC, NCHS.
PHI-10.3 States using the standard report of fetal death.
Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City).
Baseline: 22 States used the 2003 U.S. standard report of fetal death in 2008.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Fetal Death (NVSS-Fetal Death), CDC, NCHS.
Public Health Organizations
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PHI-11: Increase the proportion of Tribal and State public health agencies that provide or ensure
comprehensive laboratory services to support essential public health services.
PHI-11.1 Disease prevention, control, and surveillance.
Target: 97 percent.
Baseline: 88 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services to support disease prevention, control, and surveillance in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.2 Integrated data management.
Target: 61 percent.
Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services that had integrated data management in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.3 Reference and specialized testing.
Target: 86 percent.
Baseline: 78 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services that had reference and specialized testing in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.4 Environmental health and protection.
Target: 61 percent.
Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services for environmental health and protection in 2008.
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Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.5 Food safety.
Target: 34 percent.
Baseline: 31 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services for food safety in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.6 Laboratory improvement and regulation.
Target: 45 percent.
Baseline: 41 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services that had laboratory improvement or regulation in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.7 Policy development.
Target: 74 percent.
Baseline: 67 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services for policy development in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.8 Emergency response.
Target: 67 percent.
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Baseline: 61 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services for emergency response in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.9 Public health-related research.
Target: 32 percent.
Baseline: 29 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services for public health-related research in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.10 Training and education.
Target: 52 percent.
Baseline: 47 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services training and education in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
PHI-11.11 Partnerships and communication.
Target: 67 percent.
Baseline: 61 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
laboratory services partnerships and communication in 2008.
Target setting method: 10 percent improvement.
Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health
Laboratories (APHL).
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PHI-12: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of public health laboratory systems (including
State, Tribal, and local) which perform at a high level of quality in support of the 10 Essential
Public Health Services.
Potential data source: Association of Public Health Laboratories.
PHI-13: Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that provide or
ensure comprehensive epidemiology services to support essential public health services.
PHI-13.1 State epidemiologists with formal training in epidemiology.
Target: 100 percent.
Baseline: 87 percent of State epidemiologists had received formal training in epidemiology, as
reported in 2009.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
Data source: Epidemiology Capacity Assessment (ECA), Council of State and Territorial
Epidemiologists (CSTE).
PHI-13.2 (Developmental) Tribal public health agencies.
Potential data source: Survey of Regionally Based Public Health Services/lnfrastructure in Indian
Country, Tribal Epidemiology Centers (Epi Centers), CDC, and IHS.
PHI-13.3 State public health agencies.
Target: 100 percent.
Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
epidemiology services to support essential public health services in 2009.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
Data source: Epidemiology Capacity Assessment (ECA), Council of State and Territorial
Epidemiologists (CSTE).
PHI-13.4 Local public health agencies.
Target: 100 percent.
Baseline: 64 percent of local public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive
epidemiology services to support essential public health services in 2008.
Target setting method: Total coverage.
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Data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and
City Health Officials (NACCHO).
PHI-14: Increase the proportion of State and local public health jurisdictions that conduct a
public health system assessment using national performance standards.
PHI-14.1 State public health systems.
Target: 78 percent.
Baseline: 49 percent of State public health systems had ever submitted State Public Health
System Performance Assessment data to the National Public Health Performance Standards
Program in 2009.
Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for State,
Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support.
PHI-14.2 Local public health systems. Target: 50 percent.
Baseline: 28 percent of local public health systems had ever submitted Local Public Health
System Performance Assessment data to the National Public Health Performance Standards
Program in 2009.
Target setting method: Modeling/projection.
Data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for State,
Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support.
PHI-14.3 (Developmental) Local boards of health.
Potential data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for
State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support.
PHI-15: Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that have
implemented a health improvement plan and increase the proportion of local health jurisdictions
that have implemented a health improvement plan linked with their State plan.
PHI-15.1 (Developmental) Tribal agencies.
Potential data source: Indian Health Service.
PHI-15.2 (Developmental) State public health agencies.
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Potential data source: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and
Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO).
PHI-15.3 (Developmental) Local public health agencies.
Potential data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of
County and City Health Officials (NACCHO).
PHI-15.4 (Developmental) Local jurisdictions that have linked health improvement plans to the
State plans.
Potential data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of
County and City Health Officials (NACCHO).
PHI-16: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health
agencies that have implemented an agency-wide quality improvement process.
Potential data sources: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and
Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO); National Profile of Local Health Departments, National
Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO); and the Indian Health Service.
PHI-17: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health
agencies that are accredited.
Potential data source: Public Health Accreditation Board.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

The information below was taken from: Rowitz, L. Public Health Leadership. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284055573/ HEALTHY PEQPLE 2020 The new Healthy People report demonstrates that infrastructure development is critical to all the health topic areas in the report.7 The key goals of the new report involve objectives related to health improvement, the development of environments that promote good health, and teaching people ways to promote their good health and improve their health behaviors. The job of the public health leader is to build infrastructure to provide a framework to address the social determinants of health. The World Health Organization defined social determination of health as follows: 8 The complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems responsible for most health inequities. These social structures and economic systems include the social environment, physical environment, health services, and structural and societal factors. Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world. A concern about building public health infrastructure for the year 2020 has led to the development of several emerging issues, including tribal public health infrastructure, public health workforce disparities, public health agency accreditation, public health systems research, and public health law. 9 Exhibit 7-1 presents the recommended objectives related to public health infrastructure in the Healthy People 2020 document.10 These infrastructure objectives provide guidance to public health leaders for some of their work and collaborative activities. EXHIBIT 7-1 Healthy People 2020 Summary of Public Health Infrastructure Objectives Public Health Infrastructure Number Workforce PHI-1 PHI-2 PHI-3 PHI-4 PHI-5 PHI-6 Objective Short Title Competencies for public health professionals Continuing education of public health personnel Integration of core competencies in public health into curricula Public health majors and minors Public health majors and minors consistent with core competencies Associate degrees and certificate programs in public health Data and Information Systems PHI-7 PHI-8 PHI-9 PHI-10 National data for Healthy People 2020 objectives National tracking of Healthy People 2020 objectives Timely release of national data for Healthy People 2020 objectives State vital event reporting Public Health Organizations PHI-11 Public health agencies laboratory services PHI-12 PHI-13 PHI-14 PHI-15 PHI-16 PHI-17 Public health laboratory systems performance of essential services Epidemiology services Public health system assessment Health improvement plans Public health agency quality improvement program Accredited public health agencies Topic Area: Public Health Infrastructure Workforce PHI-1: Increase the proportion of Federal, Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that incorporate Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals into job descriptions and performance evaluations. PHI-1.1 (Developmental) Federal agencies. Potential data source: Office of Personnel Management. PHI-1.2 (Developmental) Tribal agencies. Potential data source: Indian Health Service. PHI-1.3 (Developmental) State public health agencies. Potential data source: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). PHI-1.4 Local public health agencies.* Target: 25 percent. Baseline: 15 percent of local public health agencies incorporated Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals into job descriptions in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percentage point improvement. Data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). (*Data for local public health agencies include only data on job descriptions.) PHI-2: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health personnel who receive continuing education consistent with Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals. Potential data sources: Indian Health Service, the Public Health Foundation TRAIN database, and HRSA’s Public Health Training Centers. PHI-3: Increase the proportion of Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited schools of public health, CEPH accredited academic programs, and schools of nursing (with a public health or community health component) that integrate Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals into curricula. Target: 94 percent. Baseline: 91 percent of Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited schools of public health, CEPH accredited academic programs, and schools of nursing (with a public health or community health component) integrated Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals into curricula for public health professionals in 2006. Target setting method: 3 percent improvement. Data source: Council on Linkages Study, Council on Linkages Between Academic and Public Health Practice. PHI-4: Increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer public health or related majors and/or minors. PHI-4.1 Majors. Target: 10 percent. Baseline: 7 percent of 4-year colleges and universities offered public health or related majors in 2008. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: Catalog Scan of Undergraduate Public Health Programs, the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). PHI-4.2 Minors. Target: 15 percent. Baseline: 11 percent of 4-year colleges and universities offered public health or related minors in 2008. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: Catalog Scan of Undergraduate Public Health Programs, the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). PHI-5: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer public health or related majors and/or minors which are consistent with the core competencies of undergraduate public health education. Potential data source: Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) in collaboration with the American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). PHI-6: Increase the proportion of 2-year colleges that offer public health or related associate degrees and/or certificate programs. PHI-6.1 Associate degrees. Target: 3 percent. Baseline: 2 percent of 2-year colleges offered public health or related associate degrees in 2009. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U); American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). PHI-6.2 Certificate programs. Target: 1 percent. Baseline: 0 percent of 2-year colleges offered public health or related associate certificate programs in 2009. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U); American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Data and Information Systems PHI-7: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of population-based Healthy People 2020 objectives for which national data are available for all major population groups. Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS. PHI-8: Increase the proportion of Healthy People 2020 objectives that are tracked regularly at the national level. PHI-8.1 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that originally did not have baseline data but now have at least baseline data. Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS. PHI-8.2 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that have at least a baseline and one additional data point. Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS. PHI-8.3 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of objectives that are tracked at least every 3 years. Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS. PHI-9: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Healthy People 2020 objectives for which national data are released within 1 year of the end of data collection. Potential data source: Assessment of Objective Data Availability (AODA), CDC, NCHS. PHI-10: Increase the number of States that record vital events using the latest U.S. standard certificates and report. PHI-10.1 States using the standard certificate of birth. Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City). Baseline: 28 States used the 2003 U.S. standard birth certificate in 2008. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC, NCHS. PHI-10.2 States using the standard certificate of death. Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City). Baseline: 30 States used the 2003 U.S. standard death certificate in 2008. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC, NCHS. PHI-10.3 States using the standard report of fetal death. Target: 52 (50 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City). Baseline: 22 States used the 2003 U.S. standard report of fetal death in 2008. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Fetal Death (NVSS-Fetal Death), CDC, NCHS. Public Health Organizations PHI-11: Increase the proportion of Tribal and State public health agencies that provide or ensure comprehensive laboratory services to support essential public health services. PHI-11.1 Disease prevention, control, and surveillance. Target: 97 percent. Baseline: 88 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services to support disease prevention, control, and surveillance in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.2 Integrated data management. Target: 61 percent. Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services that had integrated data management in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.3 Reference and specialized testing. Target: 86 percent. Baseline: 78 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services that had reference and specialized testing in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.4 Environmental health and protection. Target: 61 percent. Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services for environmental health and protection in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.5 Food safety. Target: 34 percent. Baseline: 31 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services for food safety in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.6 Laboratory improvement and regulation. Target: 45 percent. Baseline: 41 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services that had laboratory improvement or regulation in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.7 Policy development. Target: 74 percent. Baseline: 67 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services for policy development in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.8 Emergency response. Target: 67 percent. Baseline: 61 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services for emergency response in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.9 Public health-related research. Target: 32 percent. Baseline: 29 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services for public health-related research in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.10 Training and education. Target: 52 percent. Baseline: 47 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services training and education in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-11.11 Partnerships and communication. Target: 67 percent. Baseline: 61 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive laboratory services partnerships and communication in 2008. Target setting method: 10 percent improvement. Data source: Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey (CLSS), Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL). PHI-12: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of public health laboratory systems (including State, Tribal, and local) which perform at a high level of quality in support of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. Potential data source: Association of Public Health Laboratories. PHI-13: Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that provide or ensure comprehensive epidemiology services to support essential public health services. PHI-13.1 State epidemiologists with formal training in epidemiology. Target: 100 percent. Baseline: 87 percent of State epidemiologists had received formal training in epidemiology, as reported in 2009. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: Epidemiology Capacity Assessment (ECA), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). PHI-13.2 (Developmental) Tribal public health agencies. Potential data source: Survey of Regionally Based Public Health Services/lnfrastructure in Indian Country, Tribal Epidemiology Centers (Epi Centers), CDC, and IHS. PHI-13.3 State public health agencies. Target: 100 percent. Baseline: 55 percent of State public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive epidemiology services to support essential public health services in 2009. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: Epidemiology Capacity Assessment (ECA), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). PHI-13.4 Local public health agencies. Target: 100 percent. Baseline: 64 percent of local public health agencies provided or ensured comprehensive epidemiology services to support essential public health services in 2008. Target setting method: Total coverage. Data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). PHI-14: Increase the proportion of State and local public health jurisdictions that conduct a public health system assessment using national performance standards. PHI-14.1 State public health systems. Target: 78 percent. Baseline: 49 percent of State public health systems had ever submitted State Public Health System Performance Assessment data to the National Public Health Performance Standards Program in 2009. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support. PHI-14.2 Local public health systems. Target: 50 percent. Baseline: 28 percent of local public health systems had ever submitted Local Public Health System Performance Assessment data to the National Public Health Performance Standards Program in 2009. Target setting method: Modeling/projection. Data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support. PHI-14.3 (Developmental) Local boards of health. Potential data source: National Public Health Performance Standards Program, CDC, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support. PHI-15: Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that have implemented a health improvement plan and increase the proportion of local health jurisdictions that have implemented a health improvement plan linked with their State plan. PHI-15.1 (Developmental) Tribal agencies. Potential data source: Indian Health Service. PHI-15.2 (Developmental) State public health agencies. Potential data source: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). PHI-15.3 (Developmental) Local public health agencies. Potential data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). PHI-15.4 (Developmental) Local jurisdictions that have linked health improvement plans to the State plans. Potential data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). PHI-16: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that have implemented an agency-wide quality improvement process. Potential data sources: State and Territorial Public Health Survey, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO); National Profile of Local Health Departments, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO); and the Indian Health Service. PHI-17: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local public health agencies that are accredited. Potential data source: Public Health Accreditation Board. 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