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1. Compare major cranial-dental features to understand fossil hominin classification.
- The dental features that are significant with the Hominin fossils are the Chewing teeth
size, whether robust or gracile, how robust are the lower and upper jaws. Cranial
features that are significant includes the braincase shape and size, presence of fore
head and brow size.
2. Identify & describe the taxonomy of Pliocene hominins.
- The Pliocene Hominins can be classified to the following:
1. Australopithecus this genus was found in the eastern, central and South Africa
and said to have existed around 4.2 to 1.8 Ma.
2. Kenyanthropus found in East Africa and existed around 3.5 Ma.
3. Paranthropus found in East Africa and existed around 2.5 Ma.
4. Early Homo This includes Homo habilis and rudolfensis that existed 2.8 Ma in
East and South Africa.
3. Recognize when specific human traits first appear in the fossil record.
- The earliest trace of human traits where we branched out from the Hominins was
around 2.5 Ma when the first of the Homo existed.
4. Identify difficulties with how we define modern humans.
- Difficulties in defining modern humans may come from the identifying features where
identifications will be based. These features may be more present in some groups than
others which may be interpreted as other groups being more evolved. This may have
implied messages that may be received well by people.
5. Recognize and differentiate significant paleontological events in the Pliocene epoch.
- Significant events of the Pliocene epoch:
1. Appearance of the Australopithecus which is subdivided into a at least five
species.
2. During the same time as the Australopithecus, the Kenyanthropus was
discovered to have existed which is said to be of separate branch due to distinct
features.
3. After the time of the Australopithecus, the Paranthropus later appeared in East
Africa and then around the same time, the early Homo also started as a
separate branch which showed human traits.
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6. Identify and explain each of these and their significance in Pliocene evolution: Australopithecus,
Kenyanthropus, Paranthropus, and early members of Homo (Homo habilis and Homo
rudolfensis).
1. Australopithecus They are the earlier Pliocene hominin with traits that are still
in transition from the early apes.
2. Kenyanthropus This is a newly discovered branch separate from the
Australopithecus but existed around the same time
3. Paranthropus They arguably branched out from the Australopithecus at a later
period but eventually died out.
4. Homo habilis & rudolfensis Human traits started with the early Homo branch
which later evolved in to the modern humans
7. Define and describe what factors led to the speciation, spread, and, in some cases, extinction of
the above fossil hominins.
- The changes in facial and dental features where due to the transition of one diet. For
example some hominin had longer canine which means they resorted more on meat.
The early Homo which survived and evolved successfully may have been more flexible in
finding opportunities for food in different environments. On the other hand, the
Paranthropus have not been as adaptive which could have resulted to their extinction.
8. Recognize and explain the significance of dental, cranial, and postcranial evidence about each of
the above fossil humans.
1. Australopithecus They have large chewing teeth in a more U-shaped row.
Their braincases are small with sagittal crests. They also have prominent brow
ridges.
2. Kenyanthropus Though existed around the same time, they have smaller teeth
that the Australopithecus, with a flatter facial feature and around the same
brain case size.
3. Paranthropus They have more robust features than the Homo and
Kenyanthropus. Their braincase is also larger, with a wide set face and large
teeth.
4. Homo habilis & rudolfensis Their teeth are gracile. Their braincase is much
larger with a much rounder shape.
9. Compare major cranial-dental features to understand fossil hominin classification
- The dental features that are significant with the Hominin fossils are the Chewing teeth
size, whether robust or gracile, how robust are the lower and upper jaws. Cranial
features that are significant includes the braincase shape and size, presence of fore
head and brow size.
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1. Compare major cranial-dental features to understand fossil hominin classification. - The dental features that are significant with the Hominin fossils are the Chewing teeth size, whether robust or gracile, how robust are the lower and upper jaws. Cranial features that are significant includes the braincase shape and size, presence of fore head and brow size. 2. Identify & describe the taxonomy of Pliocene hominins. - The Pliocene Hominins can be classified to the following: 1. Australopithecus – this genus was found in the eastern, central and South Africa and said to have existed around 4.2 to 1.8 Ma. 2. Kenyanthropus – found in East Africa and existed around 3.5 Ma. 3. Paranthropus – found in East Africa and existed around 2.5 Ma. 4. Early Homo – This includes Homo habilis and rudolfensis that existed 2.8 Ma in East and South Africa. 3. Recognize when specific human traits first appear in the fossil record. - The earliest trace of human traits where we branched out from the Hominins was around 2.5 Ma when the first of the Homo existed. 4. Identify difficulties with how we define modern humans. - Difficulties in defining modern humans may come from the identifying features where identifications will be based. These features may be more present in some groups than others which may be interpreted as other groups being more evolved. This may have implied messages that may be received well by people. 5. Recognize and differentiate significant paleontological events in the Pliocene epoch. - Significant events of the Pliocene epoch: 1. Appearance of the Australopithecus which is subdivided into a at least five species. 2. During the same time as the Australopithecus, the Kenyanthropus was discovered to have existed which is said to be of separate branch due to distinct features. 3. After the time of the Australopithecus, the Paranthropus later appeared in East Africa and then around the same time, the early Homo also started as a separate branch which showed human traits. 6. Identify and explain each of these and their significance in Pliocene evolution: Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, Paranthropus, and early members of Homo (Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis). 1. Australopithecus – They are the earlier Pliocene hominin with traits that are still in transition from the early apes. 2. Kenyanthropus – This is a newly discovered branch separate from the Australopithecus but existed around the same time 3. Paranthropus – They arguably branched out from the Australopithecus at a later period but eventually died out. 4. Homo habilis & rudolfensis – Human traits started with the early Homo branch which later evolved in to the modern humans 7. Define and describe what factors led to the speciation, spread, and, in some cases, extinction of the above fossil hominins. - The changes in facial and dental features where due to the transition of one diet. For example some hominin had longer canine which means they resorted more on meat. The early Homo which survived and evolved successfully may have been more flexible in finding opportunities for food in different environments. On the other hand, the Paranthropus have not been as adaptive which could have resulted to their extinction. 8. Recognize and explain the significance of dental, cranial, and postcranial evidence about each of the above fossil humans. 1. Australopithecus – They have large chewing teeth in a more U-shaped row. Their braincases are small with sagittal crests. They also have prominent brow ridges. 2. Kenyanthropus – Though existed around the same time, they have smaller teeth that the Australopithecus, with a flatter facial feature and around the same brain case size. 3. Paranthropus – They have more robust features than the Homo and Kenyanthropus. Their braincase is also larger, with a wide set face and large teeth. 4. Homo habilis & rudolfensis – Their teeth are gracile. Their braincase is much larger with a much rounder shape. 9. Compare major cranial-dental features to understand fossil hominin classification - The dental features that are significant with the Hominin fossils are the Chewing teeth size, whether robust or gracile, how robust are the lower and upper jaws. Cranial features that are significant includes the braincase shape and size, presence of fore head and brow size. Name: Description: ...
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