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Conflict Summary: Israel-Palestine
The conflicts between Israel and Palestine first arose in the late 19
th
century. During the
late 19
th
century, Palestine was ruled by the Ottoman Empire and the majority of the population
was Muslim. According to Jewish Virtual Library, the Jewish population was only 8 percent in
1882. The Jewish population rapidly increased as anti-Semitism threatened the lives of Jews in
European nations. Anti-Semitism prevented the assimilation of Jews into European nations and it
influenced a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl to publish the Jewish State in 1896. The
Jewish State consisted the idea of Zionism, Herzl stated that Jews need to establish the Jewish
state and protect themselves with their state. As the Ottoman empire collapsed, the British began
to rule Palestine in 1918 when the World War I ended. The British were positive about Jewish
immigration to Palestine and even issued the Balfour Declaration in 1917 during the World War
I. The Balfour Declaration encouraged Zionism and it was inevitable for European Jews to join
the Zionist movement when the World War II ended in 1945. During the World War II, anti-
Semitism soared under the Nazi Germany and the Holocaust killed approximately 6 million
European Jews. As a result, the population of Jewish in Palestine sharply increased as Jews
moved to Palestine with the hope of settling their state. Compared to 1884, the total Jewish
population in Palestine was 82.1 percent in 1948, (Jewish Virtual Library). Due to massive
Jewish immigration with support of the British government, the tension between Arabs and Jews
emerged. However, the British government made the United Nation to resolve the issue of
Palestine.
The proposal of the United Nation in 1947 triggered the conflicts to progress from the
conflict emergence stage to the conflict escalation stage. As the conflicts escalated, Jews and
Arabs began to use violence to preserve their identity group. Based on the partition plan of the

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United Nation, the British Mandate of Palestine was divided into Jewish and Arab states about
the same (Cite). Arabs disagreed with the partition plan and refused the territorial division while
Jews accepted the partition plan. Eventually, the first Arab-Israeli war started on May 15, 1948,
the day after Israel declared their independence. The war continued until an armistice was signed
in 1949. Israeli won the war and gained control over most of the Palestinian territories except for
the West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, these armistice lines broke with the Six-Day War in
1967. The war only lasted six days and again, the war ended with Israel’s victory (Cite). At the
end of the war, Israel gained control over all of the Palestinian territories including the West
Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights. Furthermore, the Palestinian Liberation
Organization was formed in 1964, calling for Arab nationalism and seek for the destruction of
Israel. Therefore, third parties were in need to alleviate the conflicts as identity issues were
involved in the conflicts.
Third parties mediation was helpful but it did not always lessen the hostility and violence
between Israel and Palestine. For example, the United Nation consistently attempted to de-
escalate the conflicts by passing several resolutions. However, these solutions were not effective
because the United Nation did not have the authority to enforce its decisions. On the other hand,
the United States brokered a ceasefire in 1978, Egypt and Israel were able to sign a peace treaty,
which is also known as the Camp David Accords. The Camp David Accords helped to de-
escalate the conflicts and provided a framework for achieving peace in the Middle East. Israel
agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula and showed its willingness to negotiate for the
establishment of Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Despite the third-party mediation, Palestine was yet stateless and continued to suffer
under the existence of Israel’s military in the Palestinian territories. As a result, the first Intifada

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Conflict Summary: Israel-Palestine The conflicts between Israel and Palestine first arose in the late 19th century. During the late 19th century, Palestine was ruled by the Ottoman Empire and the majority of the population was Muslim. According to Jewish Virtual Library, the Jewish population was only 8 percent in 1882. The Jewish population rapidly increased as anti-Semitism threatened the lives of Jews in European nations. Anti-Semitism prevented the assimilation of Jews into European nations and it influenced a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl to publish the Jewish State in 1896. The Jewish State consisted the idea of Zionism, Herzl stated that Jews need to establish the Jewish state and protect themselves with their state. As the Ottoman empire collapsed, the British began to rule Palestine in 1918 when the World War I ended. The British were positive about Jewish immigration to Palestine and even issued the Balfour Declaration in 1917 during the World War I. The Balfour Declaration encouraged Zionism and it was inevitable for European Jews to join the Zionist movement when the World War II ended in 1945. During the World War II, antiSemitism soared under the Nazi Germany and the Holocaust killed approximately 6 million European Jews. As a result, the population of Jewish in Palestine sharply increased as Jews moved to Palestine with the hope of settling their state. Compared to 1884, the total Jewish population in Palestine was 82.1 percent in 1948, (Jewish Virtual ...
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