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Essay On Welding

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Engineering
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University of Buraimi
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ESSAY ON WELDING
INTRODUCTION- Welding is a process in which localized permanent joint can be produce
with/without application of heat and pressure. Generally, welding can be done of two metallic or
non-metallic objects. If we talk about it’s discovery, though there is no single person takes credit for
invention of welding but yes, Sir Humphry Davy produced the first electric arc between two carbon
electrodes which is one of the main type of welding used in whole world. Welding created a new
world. The world would not be the way it is today if it was not for welding. There are so many types
of welding process that are use according to application of machinery.
There are mainly three types of welding that are Solid state (Autogenous) , Solid/Liquid
(Heterogeneous) and Liquid state(Homogeneous). Again there are further division of these types
which are-
SOLID STATE-
1- Explosive welding process
2- Ultrasonic welding process
3- Friction welding process
4- Forge welding process
SOLID/LIQUID STATE-
1- Soldering
2- Brazing
LIQUID STATE-
1- Arc welding process
2- Resistance welding process
3- Chemical welding process
The working principle of welding process is that after getting sufficient heat , pressure and time
diffusion of atoms starts in between both joining objects and welding takes place. Welding is use
mainly in automobile industries and related manufacturing industries . As we can see in world there
are some sectors which doesn’t exist even without welding process. During welding process we
should have take so many precautions so that we can not fell into trouble or any accident may not
occur. Before starting welding process we should check the wind direction so that flame of arc may
not harm us. We should wear our personal protective equipment i.e. PPE like welding shield with
black and white welding glass, lather hand gloves etc. We use transformers for conversion of voltage
from high voltage to low voltage and same for the current. We use welding electrodes for welding as
filler material. These electrodes are made of metals and flux coating , flux coating materials will act
as de-oxidizers that means they absorbs oxygen from liquid metals. If thickness of joining metals are
less than 5 mm then we can avoid filler material in some types of welding process.

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There are some welding techniques i.e. welding positions-
1- Flat position
2- Horizontal position
3- Vertical position
4- Overhead position
The major application of welding process are in Automobile sector, Aerospace industries ,chemical
industries, railway workshop , pumps and compressors workshop , steel making industries etc.
We should know about different types of welding processes-
1- ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
When electrode is in contact with workpiece due to short-circuit arc will be produce to
continue the arc same gap is maintained between electrode and workpiece , known as arc
length. When electron are moving from cathode to anode heat will generate on anode due
to momentum of ions from anode to cathode. In industries mainly we use constant current
type (droop) that is also called as manual arc welding technique.
2- GAS WELDING
In gas welding process by burning of acetylene in presence of oxygen due to exothermic
reaction heat can be produce. This will be used for melting of base material to produce a
fusion joint . By controlling the volume flow rates of oxygen and acetylene from cylinder
different flames can be produce . they will be used for different applications.
3- EXPLOSIVE WELDING
For joining of the objects surface to surface in solid state this technique can be used. Two
objects which are to be welded one will be fixed called target plate and other is movable
Flyer plate. By exploding low velocity explosive material above the flyer plate more energy
will be released. Using this flyer plate will be forced on the target plate with the maximum
impact force. Due to plastic or permanent deformation joint formation can be place at the
contact of two surfaces. Strength of joint will depends on amount of impact force .
4- ULTRASONIC WELDING
For joining of less thickness materials like foils this technique can be used. High frequency
power supply will be given to the transducers . it will produce high frequency ultrasonic
vibrations. This will be transfer to the workpiece through clamp.
Due to linear vibrations at the contact of the workpiece rubbing action will generate heat.
After getting a particular temperature by releasing the static load joint can be produce
between two workpieces.
5- FRICTION WELDING
For joining of object end to end this technique can be used. Two workpiece which are to be
welded provided between a holder such that one will be fix and other is having rotational
and axial moment. By making the contact of rotational object to fixed object initially due to
rubbing action heat will be generated. Stopping the rotation external axial pressure can be
applied to produce joint between two surfaces. There is one disadvantage of this type of
welding process that we can join only co-axial cylindrical shape of objects only.

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ESSAY ON WELDING INTRODUCTION- Welding is a process in which localized permanent joint can be produce with/without application of heat and pressure. Generally, welding can be done of two metallic or non-metallic objects. If we talk about it’s discovery, though there is no single person takes credit for invention of welding but yes, Sir Humphry Davy produced the first electric arc between two carbon electrodes which is one of the main type of welding used in whole world. Welding created a new world. The world would not be the way it is today if it was not for welding. There are so many types of welding process that are use according to application of machinery. There are mainly three types of welding that are Solid state (Autogenous) , Solid/Liquid (Heterogeneous) and Liquid state(Homogeneous). Again there are further division of these types which areSOLID STATE1234- Explosive welding ...
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Really useful study material!

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