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CRITICAL THINKING- CHAPTERS 4 AND 5 (3 REVIEW)

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CRITICAL THINKING- CHAPTERS 4 AND 5 (3 REVIEW)
1. The main rule of critical thinking is that we “proportion our belief to the evidence.” Explain
what this means by giving an example of someone who follows this principle, and of someone
who fails to follow this principle.
This principle explores the involvement of more than blindly acting or reaction. It’s subjective
when people engage in it after considering human thinking towards rational evaluation. For
someone who follows this principle, he or she ends up becoming an accomplished critical thinker
and able to evaluate arguments. Therefore for person following this principle thinking critically
is not thinking negatively with predisposition to fault or flaws. The principle is elaborated in a
way that if no evidence to support either one of the existing conflict claims then it’s quite hard
for a person to believe until there is evidence to favor one claim over the other. For the person
who does not follow this principle ends up not being highly motivated in putting necessary work
sufficient to evaluate multiple sides of issues. Also the person is not able to have an independent
mind or being free thinker. Any person who does not follow the principle “proportion our belief
to the evidence” might end up considering the claim conflicts with other claims and believing
without clear evidence.
1. We can justify our beliefs by giving an argument (covered in chapter 3) or by giving direct
evidence. Direct evidence can come in one of two forms: one’s own observation and
experiences, or an external source, like a person, the internet, newspapers, books, the many
forms of social media, such as Twitter, Instagram, etc. This question is about using your own
observation. Sometimes, personal experience is an unreliable source of information. Of the six
things listed in the lecture notes, which one is the hardest to assess from the first person point of
view?
From the first person point of view, the hardest critical thinking aspect to access is the Experts
and Evidence because it involves a tricky access whereby there is evaluation of which expert is
always right and who is not right (non-experts). This is because of the probability which
illustrates an opposition of experiments and observations which eventually show one side
overbalance the other. The involvement of the Expert and Evidence also attributes to
identification of which opposite, deducted number from greater so as to know the exact force of
superior evidence. From this analysis, the experts are able to identify that we are no longer the
memory tenacious to a certain degree but commonly an inclination to truth and probity principle
where there is experience discoverability to be qualities, inherent in human nature and the reality
that no note for falsehood or sensible detected falsehood towards evidence. It sounds hard
because it needs assessments probably when there have been recognized an argument whereby it
assumed to be true and something is attempting to prove, as this occurs there have to be sought
an alternative explanation from the right experts.

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3. We can justify our beliefs by giving an argument (covered in chapter 3) or by giving direct
evidence. Direct evidence can come in one of two forms: one’s own observation or an external
source, like a person, the internet, newspapers, books, the many forms of social media, such as
Twitter, Instagram, etc. This question is about using we use external sources because one
individual cannot know everything, but external sources have to be carefully vetted for their
reliability and expertise.
a) The book describes how we can identify expertise in a person. Of the four signs of an
expert listed in the textbook, which one do you think is the most significant? Defend
your view with an argument.
One of the most significant signs of an expert in identifying expertise in a person is by education
and training from reputable institutions or programs in the relevant field. This is because there is
the major role of critical thinking in Education and in life thus outlining the proponents of
thinking skills like creative and critical. Certainly, this emphasizes on the relevance of thinking
of many aspects like “critical thinking is known as the art of taking charge of individual’s own
mind. It portrays that, critical thinking is not an isolated goal unrelated to the other important
goals in Education but it is a seminal goal that facilitates a rainbow of the other ends. By this
means, a student learns to think more critically and becomes quite proficient at historical,
mathematical thinking and scientific whereby they are influenced and develops skills, values and
abilities which are crucial.
b) The book lists several signs of dubious authority. Of the ones listed, which do you think
is the most significant? Defend your view with an argument.
The most significant sign of Dubious Authority is the commit logical contradictions or
inconsistencies in their speech or writing. This is because of the

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