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Diabetes Mellitus Predisposing Factors Presentation

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Diabetes Mellitus What is Diabetes Mellitus? • Diabetes is a disease that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose (Dlugasch & Story, 2021) • Individuals with DM have a defect in insulin secretion or action caused by a chronic disorder (Dlugasch & Story, 2021) • Diagnostic Tests • A1c > 6.5, • Fasting plasma glucose greater than 126, • Random plasma glucose greater than or equal to 200mg/ dL, • Oral glucose tolerance test greater than or equal to 200mg/ dL (Dlugasch & Story, 2021) • There are four types of diabetes (Cash et al., 2021) • • • • Type 1 Type 2 Gestational DM DM from Secondary Causes Clinical Manifestations and Complications Glucosuria Polyuria Blurred vision Polydipsia Fatigue Polyphagia Nausea and Vomiting (Dlugasch & Story, 2021; (GaliciaGarcia et al., 2020) Predisposing Factors BMI > 27kg/m2 Family history of type 1 or type 2 diabetes Physical inactivity HTN with systolic pressure > 140 mmHg and diastolic greater than 90mmHg History of CVD History of Gestational Diabetes (Dlugasch & Story, 2021) Anatomy • Alpha cells- increase glucose levels • Beta cells- release insulin • Delta cells – release somatostatin and acts as an inhibitor • Pancreatic Polypeptide- regulates appetite This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA (Dlugasch & Story, 2021) Pathophysiology of Type II Diabetes • Type II is considered insulin resistant • Lack of physical activity and a unhealthy diet lea ...
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